A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The educational objective of teaching is to develop knowledge related:
- outline the general picture of cellular metabolism
- to know and explain at the molecular, subcellular, cellular and tissue levels the biochemical mechanisms of biological phenomena
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student must be able to:
1. Analyse how proteins interact with other molecules
2. Linking the structural properties of a fibrous protein such as collagen with its function
3. Relate the structural properties of two globular proteins, haemoglobin and myoglobin, with their function
Biological enzymes and catalysis
1. Describe the process of enzyme catalysis
2. Explain the different mechanisms that control and regulate enzyme activity
3. Describe the principles on which enzyme dosing techniques are based
4. Know the international enzyme classification criteria
Biological membranes
1. Describe the composition and properties of biological membranes
2. Explain the role of biological membranes in defining cell compartmentalisation
3. Know the molecular basis of passive and active facilitated transport processes of ions and molecules through membranes
Energy and mitochondrial functions
1. Demonstrate how the energy released in biological ox/red reaction can be used for the formation of high-energy bonds
2. Illustrate the function of mitochondria and the main mechanisms of its control
3. Explain how oxidation of sugars, fats and proteins produces metabolic energy and recognise the final role of the Krebs cycle in the entire process
Carbohydrates Metabolism
1. Illustrate the energy metabolism of glucose in anaerobic and aerobic conditions
2. Illustrate the main pathways of metabolic glucose use and explain the meaning the formation of the carbohydrate reserves and the shunt of hexose monophosphate
3. Know the metabolic pathways of galactose, fructose, ac. glucuronic and amino sugars
4. Know the mechanisms of regulation of various metabolic processes of carbohydrates
5. Relate the structural properties of proteoglycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids with their functional role
Lipid Metabolism
1. correlate the structural characteristics of the different lipids to their functions
2. Illustrate the main ways of synthesising and degrading fatty acids,
triglycerides and major complex lipids
3. Know how triglycerides are accumulated and used
4. Illustrate cholesterol metabolism and its regulation
5. Explain the mechanisms by which lipids are conveyed in different districts body's body
Metabolism of amino acids
1. Know the different metabolic possibilities of amino acids
2. Know how our bodies are able to use and remove the amino group in form of urea
3. Demonstrate how the carbon skeleton of amino acids can be used to energy purpose or for the synthesis of carbohydrates or fatty acids
4. Illustrate the process of incorporation of amino acids into proteins and its regulation
Nucleotide metabolism
1. Describe the biosynthesis pathways of nucleotides and explain the role of coenzymes in them involved
2. Describe nucleotide degradation pathways and explain biochemical causes uric acid increase
Metabolic correlations and tissue biochemistry
1. Describe inter- and intracellular communication mechanisms
2. Describe the structure, biosynthesis and secretion of hormones
3. Describe signalling mechanisms through membranes
4. Know the organization of metabolism in the feeding and fasting phases (regulation of glycogen metabolism, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis)
5. Know the peculiarity of the metabolism of different tissues:
a. liver (including the production of bile pigments and metabolism ethanol)
b. fatty tissue
c. blood (including the transport of gases, plasma proteins, blood pathological haemoglobins, iron homeostasis, mechanisms
of production and elimination of free radicals and clotting)
Nutrition Biochemistry
1. Identifying the nutritional principles and knowing the caloric value of the different nutrients
2. Evaluate energy demands in different physiological situations (basal and functional metabolism)
3. Indicate the characteristics of an appropriate diet and analyse its role in maintaining of homeostasis
4. Explain the biological role of essential nutrients
Biochemical indicators of integrated functions
1. Explain the biochemical basis of blood sugar homeostasis
2. Know how terminal catabolites are transported and eliminated
3. Discuss the biochemical basis of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidaemia
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 12
Informal teaching: 16 hours
Lessons: 132 hours
Gruppo 1
Professor: Cazzola Roberta
Gruppo 2
Professor: Cazzola Roberta
Educational website(s)
by appointment
Dept L. Sacco, LITA fourth floor, biochemistry labs
on appointment to be organised via e-mail
Palazzina LITA-Vialba