Biochemistry and Basic Biologica Sciences

A.Y. 2020/2021
4
Max ECTS
40
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10 BIO/12 BIO/13 MED/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The target of the course, firstly, is to supply the students about basics of Chemistry (general and organic), essential for the comprehension of the main concepts of Biochemistry and of biologic process. Secondly, in the modules of Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, it will be given to the students the main values of Bio-energetic, metabolic process and basic concepts for the comprehension and interpretation of laboratory's tests. The modules of Biology and Genetics are aimed at the knowledge of the structure and function of cells and cell compartments, with particular attention to genetic information, for the study of chromosomes, their role and genetic diseases.
Expected learning outcomes
-To understand the fundamental concepts of general and organic chemistry necessary to the comprehension of the structure of biologically active molecules.
- The understand the essentials of metabolism and bioenergetic principles
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
The lessons will be perfomed on-line through the Microsoft teams platform and they will be available both (sychronous and asychronous) at the same time based on the first trimester timetable. They will be registred and available on the Microsoft teams platform.
Prerequisites for admission
Prerequisites are not required
Assessment methods and Criteria
Multiple choice questions
Are planned tests for the individual exam modules
Biochemistry
Course syllabus
Preliminary step
Fundamental concepts of General Chemistry: Atoms. Molecules. Periodic Table of elements. Chemical bond. Reactions: chemical kinetics, equilibria. pH of acids and bases, buffer solutions. Fundamental concepts of Organic Chemistry: main functional groups: structures and reactions. Classes of biological compounds: carbohydrates, lipids, aminoacids and proteins.
Teaching methods
Whole class teaching. The slides of the lessons of biochemistry are given to the students on the Ariel platform. In order to study the introductory part of chemistry the notes are adequate.
Teaching Resources
Testo consigliato: M.Stefani, N. Taddei-Chimica, Biochimica - ed Zanichelli
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Course syllabus
· Pre-analytical phase: main indications for requesting the laboratory tests; types of biological samples with particular attention to blood sample; specimen collection, storage and treatment; sources of pre-analytical variability, factors related to sample, intra- and inter-individual biological variability.
· Analytical phase: analytical variability; reliability of analytical methods, concepts of precision and trueness; types of errors; internal quality control and external quality assessment procedures.
· Post-analytical phase: reference intervals; decisional limits; critical difference; the medical report.
· Laboratory diagnosis and management of diabetes mellitus.
· Biochemical-clinical aspects concerning the measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood, total blood count test; Evaluation of the iron metabolism alterations with particular attention to the laboratory tests useful for the diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia.
· Laboratory role in the evaluation of the disorders of lipids and lipoproteins
Teaching methods
Interactive lectures. The slides of the lessons together with some scientific papers on the topics covered, are provided to the students on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
- E. Albi, T. Beccari, S. Cataldi. Biochimica clinica essenziale, dal laboratorio ai quadri di patologia clinica. Zanichelli,
Bologna, 2019.
- M. Ciaccio, G. Lippi. Biochimica Clinica e Medicina di Laboratorio. EdiSES , Napoli, 2018.
- M. Panteghini. Interpretazione degli esami di laboratorio. Trattato italiano di medicina di laboratorio; volume VII.
Piccin, 2008.
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
Characteristics of living organisms. Cell theory; prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells.
2. Biological macromolecules: lipids, sugars, nucleic acids, proteins.
3. DNA structure and replication: the Watson and Crick model; central dogma of biology; Meselson and Stahl experiment; molecular replication; DNA damage repair.
4. Transcription: various types of RNA; synthesis of RNA; maturation of messenger RNAs.
5. Translation and genetic code: genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-synthetic fate of proteins.
6. The genome of eukaryotes: chromatin structure; the nucleosome; eukaryotic gene structure (introns-exons); control of gene expression.
7. Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane; endocytosis and exocytosis.
8. Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: cell compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton.
Teaching methods
Lectures and reading of specific scientific articles on cell biology applications in the treatment of pathologies of the visual apparatus.
Teaching Resources
1. Solomon, Berg, Martin ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA - EDISES (V ed) 2009
2. Russel, Wolf, Hertz, Starr, McMillan ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA CELLULARE + ELEMENTI DI GENETICA -EDISES 2009
3. Sadava, Eller, Orians, Purves, Hillis ELEMENTI DI BIOLOGIA E GENETICA - ZANICHELLI (III ed) 2005
4. Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati et al. BIOLOGIA E GENETICA -EDISES (III ed) 2006
5. Raven, Johnson, Mason, Losos, Singer BIOLOGIA CELLULARE + GENETICA E BIOLOGIA MOLECOLARE -PICCIN 2011
Medical genetics
Course syllabus
Cell cycle, DNA duplication and cell division
- Somatic cell division: the mitosis
- Germ cell division: the meiosis
- Spermatogenesis and ovogenesis
Human karyotype:
- Chromosome structure, function and classification
- Numerical chromosome abnormalities: non-disjunction at meiosis I and II
- Balanced and unbalanced structural chromosome abnormalities
Inheritance of genetic diseases:
- Monogenic diseases inheritance: dominant and recessive traits
- The study of family trees
- Complex diseases due to interactions between genes and environment (multifactorial diseases): mechanisms of inheritance
- Mono- and multifactorial ocular diseases: examples
Genetic tests (types, significance and techniques) and genetic counselling
Teaching methods
Whole class teaching
Teaching Resources
· "Genetica Medica Essenziale" - Dallapiccola-Novelli, Il Minotauro Editore
The teacher gives the slides of the lessons
Biochemistry
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
BIO/12 - CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Paleari Renata
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Medical genetics
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours