Biology and genetics

A.Y. 2020/2021
6
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/12 BIO/13 MED/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- The student must learn notions on the structure and function of the main macromolecules and cellular differentiation as well as the molecular basis of the expression of genetic information, its regulation and the transmission mobility of hereditary characters;
- It must also acquire chemical, biological and biochemical knowledge at the base of life sciences, including fundamental chemical reactions, biochemical processes and the cellular and sub-cellular structures assigned to them, the modes of transmission and expression of genetic information and fundamental dynamics of the processes that regulate the life of living organisms.
Expected learning outcomes
Acquiring chemical, biological and biochemical knowledge at the base of life sciences. Acquisition of essential concepts to be able to follow with success lessons of the following years.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
The lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both synchronously on the basis of the first semester timetable and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform
Prerequisites for admission
Not required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of a written test with multiple choice questions (1 correct answer only) and some open questions. Each question is worth from 1 to 1.5 points except open answers which can be worth up to 2 points for a total of 30 points (and possible honors). For each session there will be at least 2 appeals concerning all modules. An on-going test will be carried out at the end of the course for the Applied Biology module that will allow students to evaluate their preparation in anticipation of the exam sessions. The results will be communicated immediately at the end of the test as the correction of the task is immediate. If a student in a test passes a mark of 18/30 or higher but not the others modules, the mark will remain valid for the entire academic year but can be recorded only when the student also passes the others modules. The final mark will be the mathematical average of the marks taken in the individual modules.
Experimental biology
Course syllabus
Characteristics of living organisms: cell theory; cell study methods; prokaryotic cells; eukaryotic cells; hierarchical organization in biology; evolution of organisms.
· Characteristics of biological marcomolecules: lipids, nucleic acids and proteins.
· Structure and organization of the eukaryotic cell: cell compartmentalization; cell organelles; ribosomes; cytoskeleton; junctions; matrix.
· Structure and function of biological membranes: fluid mosaic model; transport through the membrane.
· Cellular communication: communication mode between cells.
· Cell cycle and its regulation: cycle phases; control system.
· DNA replication: central dogma of biology; Meselson and Stahl experiment; molecular replication; DNA damage repair.
Transcription: various types of RNA; synthesis of RNA; maturation of messenger RNAs.
· Translation and genetic code: genetic code and its properties; protein synthesis mechanism; post-synthetic fate of proteins.
· The genome of eukaryotes: structure of chromatin; the nucleosome; gene structure (intron-exons); control of gene expression.
· Virus: structure; bacterial, animal and plant viruses; cell-virus interactions
Teaching methods
The teaching will be delivered in the form of lectures. The course program, slides and review material will be provided to students by the teacher at the start of the course on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
· Chiara Donati, Massimo Stefani, Niccolò Taddei "Biologia e Genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Solomon, Berg, Martin "Elementi di biologia" EDISES
· Curtis, Barnes, Schnek, Massarini "Le basi della biologia" ZANICHELLI
· Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Campbell, Reece "Biologia e genetica" PEARSON
· Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini: "Biologia e Genetica" EDISES
· Barbieri L., Strocchi E., Lezioni di Patologia generale, II edizione digitale, Rimini, Polo Scientifco Didattico di Rimini, 2012
· Federici G., Medicina di laboratorio, Milano, MC GRAW HILL, 2008
· Gaw. A. Biochimica Clinica, Milano, Elsevier Masson, 2007
· Lepore M.A., Principali tecniche di biologia molecolare clinica, Roma, ARACNE EDITRICE, 2009
Medical genetics
Course syllabus
· Molecular basis of heredity: genes, chromosomes; somatic and germ cells; karyotype and ploidy; mitosis and meiosis; gametogenesis and fertilization; sex determination
· Mendelian genetics: gene, allele, locus; Mendel's laws; genotype and phenotype; interactions between alleles; multiple allelism (ABO)
· Traits and Inheritance: pedigrees; autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive and sex-linked inheritance; monofactorial diseases; mitochondrial inheritance; multifactorial inheritance
· Genetic, chromosomal and genomic mutations: point mutations, deletions, duplications, inversions, translocations; X-inactivation; polyploidies, aneuploidies; main aneuploidies of autosomes and sex chromosomes in humans; genomic diseases.
· Prenatal diagnosis: amniocentesis, villocentesis; non-invasive diagnosis
Teaching methods
The teaching will be delivered in the form of lectures. The course program, slides and review material will be provided to students by the teacher at the start of the course on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
· Chiara Donati, Massimo Stefani, Niccolò Taddei "Biologia e Genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Solomon, Berg, Martin "Elementi di biologia" EDISES
· Curtis, Barnes, Schnek, Massarini "Le basi della biologia" ZANICHELLI
· Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Campbell, Reece "Biologia e genetica" PEARSON
· Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini: "Biologia e Genetica" EDISES
· Barbieri L., Strocchi E., Lezioni di Patologia generale, II edizione digitale, Rimini, Polo Scientifco Didattico di Rimini, 2012
· Federici G., Medicina di laboratorio, Milano, MC GRAW HILL, 2008
· Gaw. A. Biochimica Clinica, Milano, Elsevier Masson, 2007
· Lepore M.A., Principali tecniche di biologia molecolare clinica, Roma, ARACNE EDITRICE, 2009
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Course syllabus
· Introduction to clinical biochemistry Immunohematology and hemostasis
· Electrophoresis of serum proteins
· Enzymes
· Cellular metabolism and respiration and glucose metabolism
· Introduction to molecular biology
· Techniques used in the clinical biochemistry laboratory and in the molecular biology laboratory
Teaching methods
The teaching will be delivered in the form of lectures. The course program, slides and review material will be provided to students by the teacher at the start of the course on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
· Chiara Donati, Massimo Stefani, Niccolò Taddei "Biologia e Genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Solomon, Berg, Martin "Elementi di biologia" EDISES
· Curtis, Barnes, Schnek, Massarini "Le basi della biologia" ZANICHELLI
· Sadava, Hillis, Heller, Berenbaum "Elementi di biologia e genetica" ZANICHELLI
· Campbell, Reece "Biologia e genetica" PEARSON
· Chieffi, Dolfini, Malcovati, Pierantoni, Tenchini: "Biologia e Genetica" EDISES
· Barbieri L., Strocchi E., Lezioni di Patologia generale, II edizione digitale, Rimini, Polo Scientifco Didattico di Rimini, 2012
· Federici G., Medicina di laboratorio, Milano, MC GRAW HILL, 2008
· Gaw. A. Biochimica Clinica, Milano, Elsevier Masson, 2007
· Lepore M.A., Principali tecniche di biologia molecolare clinica, Roma, ARACNE EDITRICE, 2009
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
BIO/12 - CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Experimental biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Medical genetics
MED/03 - MEDICAL GENETICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Spena Silvia
Professor(s)