A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
BIO/01 BIO/02
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide basic information on the organization of higher plants (Spermatophytes) by referring to the peculiarities of plant cells and the specific characteristics that allow different types of tissues to be distinguished and how these are organized to form plant organs . The course aims to analyze the reproductive cycles of the main land plant divisions by retracing the evolutionary steps that led to the passage of plants from a simple body organization (in which no specialized tissues and organs can be distinguished) to the more specialized organization of "vascular" plants.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the use of this teaching, the student must have understood the main foundations of structural, evolutionary and reproductive biology of plants, the concept of species and biodiversity. The student will develop skills related to the plurality of characters (morphological, structural, molecular), of the adaptations that plants have faced in their evolutionary history, of the ability to colonize terrestrial environments, and relate them to a phylogenetic approach.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
The lectures and the practcum will be held both in the classroom (in presence) and in videoconference according to the schedule (synchronous mode).
Students who will not attend the lessons in presence can still do the same activity online in order to develop the same skills acquired through the activities proposed in the classroom.
Class schedules and all the details of the activities will be published on the course website ( before the beginning of classes.
Any updates will also be communicated through direct notices to students (check often the mail
Also frequently consult the teaching ARIEL site for teaching-specific notices.
The modalities and criteria for attending in-person lectures, which require a reservation with the appropriate app, will be published in good time on the course website.
The exercises will be carried out in presence.
Course syllabus
The course is addressed to explore the fundamental aspects of plant biology in relation to environmental conditions. These include:
- Fundamental principles of plant biology: the plant cell; structure and functions of cell wall, vacuole, plastids.
- Basic concepts of photosynthesis.
-Body organization of vascular plants.
-Primary and secondary meristematic tissues.
-Characteristic features of different tissues and their organization in organ formation.
- Basic concepts of plant systematics, phylogeny and evolution.
- Plant biodiversity: Anatomical differences between Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons.
- The flower and reproduction in Angiosperms. Fertilization, embryogenesis and seed development. Fruits and their dispersion.
-Characteristics and reproductive strategies of some Algae, lower plants (Bryophytes) and vascular plants (seedless vascular plants, Gymnosperm and Angiosperms).
-The structural and functional differences among the main plant groups will be discussed in relation to the environmental conditions.
- Plant adaptations to the environment: transition from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment, evolution of terrestrial plant: adaptations and strategies for survival.
Prerequisites for admission
Suggested prerequisites are Biology and Chemistry.
Teaching methods
The course is based on interactive frontal lessons supported by screen-projected material; lessons will be uploaded into the Ariel website area.
The student will be involved to actively participate in the discussion to improve their critical skills, reworking the acquired concepts and communicating the concepts in an appropriate way.
The teaching is complemented by practicum activities: the students will develop manual skills by preparing fresh samples to be analyzed using a light microscope. Three practicum lessons will be organized at the Botanical garden of "Città Studi".
Few seminars will be organized
Teaching Resources
- J.D. Mauseth "Fondamenti di biologia delle piante", III ed., Idelson-Gnocchi
- G.Pasqua, G. Abbate, C. Forni "Botanica generale e diversità vegetale", IIIed., PICCIN
- R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn La biologia delle piante di Raven, settima ed., ZANICHELLI
The slide of the lectures will be uploaded on the Ariel Website
Assessment methods and Criteria
The examination is an oral test. One of the questions involves the recognition of the section of a plant organ; the student must describe the organ and indicate the tissues.
BIO/01 - GENERAL BOTANY - University credits: 0
BIO/02 - SYSTEMATIC BOTANY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 64 hours
Tuesdays 10:00-12:00
Via Celoria 26, Torre B, Piano 3