Botany

A.Y. 2020/2021
12
Max ECTS
104
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/01 BIO/02
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The aim of the course is to provide a general view of cells, tissues, and body plan organization of the angiosperms. In order to understand the plant reproduction strategies, the ontogenetic cycles of plants will be analysed across the evolution. In addition, the course gives the principles and the instruments to carry out taxonomic studies in order to recognize the most important families of the italian Flora.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will be required to have good knowledge of cell organization in different plant tissues and to discern how plant tissues organize to form the organs in higher plants. They will also be able to carry out taxonomic analysis on plants in order to classify them into specific taxa.
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
year
Lessons will start on October 6. In the first lesson the teacher will meet a small group of students in classroom and she will communicate all information on the course. The rest of students will follow the meeting at home.
After October 6, lessons will be given in asynchronous modality through ppt audio recording uploaded on the Ariel website (Botanica, A-L). Weekly meetings will be performed in synchronous modality on zoom to discuss and clarify the subjects treated in the ppt lessons. Lab classes will be given in synchronous modality in classroom. During classroom lab lessons, students will autonomously observe histological sections shown within the asynchronous lessons.
In the second semester, lessons will be held following the evolution of COVID epidemic. If possible lessons will be held in classroom, allowing students to follow both theoretical and lab lessons. Otherwise both theoretical and lab lesson will be held in in asynchronous modality through ppt audio recording uploaded on the Ariel website (Botanica, A-L). Weekly meetings will be performed in synchronous modality on Zoom to discuss and clarify the subjects treated in the ppt lessons.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic concepts of biological molecules and plant cell morphology. Elementary knowledge of angiosperm organs morphology and reproduction.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam could be made in two different ways:
1- As a whole; in this case the exam requires an oral discussion on topics that are reported in the program of both parts of the course. Recognition of a plant organ section and description of tissues which are present in the image, with special emphasis to cytological characteristics.
Description of taxonomic characters and of evolutionary relationships among plant taxa, from Algae to Angiosperms, including the evolution of reproductive strategies. Moreover, the exam comprises the evaluation and discussion of the herbarium prepared by the student.

2- The student could make the exam in two times:
a) A fist part called prova in itinere (at the end of 1st semester), will concern topics of the first part of the course only (Forma e Funzioni delle Piante Terrestri, see point 1). This written exam comprises six open questions and the image representing the section of a plant organ that should be recognized and described by indicating all different tissues. Students will have two hours to complete the exam. The exam will be evaluated in 18-30/30.
b) The second part consists in an oral discussion on themes treated in the second part of the course (Botanica Sistematica 2nd semester, see point 1). This part of exam also comprises the discussion of the herbarium prepared by the student.
Students should acquire a good knowledge of plant cell biology, of the histology and anatomy of plants from Algae to Angiosperms. Moreover, they should know plant taxonomy in order to distinguish among all different plant taxa, with special emphasis to Angiosperm species identification.
Students are particularly encouraged to develop their ability of thinking to correlate morphological and reproductive strategy changes to the evolutionary process.
The final score will take in consideration the marks of the prova in itinere and of the second part of the exam.
Systematic Botany
Course syllabus
Basic background concerning plant evolution and classification methods: difference between artificial and natural methods. The concept of species and how to indicate the species name; the hierarchy of systematic categories.
Biology of plant reproductive strategies: agamic and gamic reproduction, reproduction by spore delivery. The importance of meiosis in land colonization. Plant ontogenetic cycles from Algae to Angiosperms.
Sexual plant reproduction: different types of fertilization during the evolutionary process following colonization of lands. Reproductive structure modifications allowed led to gametangia and sporangia formation. Changes of land plants life cycle in the evolutionary process, during the adaptation of plants to subaerial environment. Morphological and functional changes of gametohytes following the appearance of plants which form microsporangia and macrosporangia.

The heterogeneity of plants: differences between thallus and corm plants.
Algae: general features and specific taxonomic characters concerning cytology, thallus morphology, reproduction and ecology of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Charophyta.
Colonization of lands: strategies of plants to avoid the excess of transpiration induced progressive changes in the organization of reproductive structures and the origin of tissues and organs typical of corm plants.
Systematic of Bryophyta: taxonomic characters of both gametophytes and sporophytes to discern among three classes: Musci, Hepaticae and Anthocerotae.
Systematic of pteridophyta; taxonomic characters of sporophytes to discern among different phyla of Lycophyta, Sphenophyta e Pterophyta. Reproduction strategies of different taxa performing or not, two different kind of sporangia.
Systematic of Gimnosperms; taxonomic characters of Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta e Coniferophyta and their reproductive strategies, with special emphasis to ovules/male gametes structure and fertilization process.
Systematic of Anthophyta; taxonomic characters of two classes of Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons and their reproductive strategies.
Taxonomic characters of main families.
Teaching methods
The course comprises lectures (traditional teaching method) during which the teacher give a detailed explanation of topics. Students are encouraged to ask questions to teacher and, in the meantime the teacher also will asks questions to students trying to stimulate reasoning.

Practice exercises will be held, in which the teacher will present movies showing how to make observation/recognition of Algae, of Pterophyta sporangia and of Spermatophyta micro- macrosporangia, by using light microscopy. In addition, the teacher will show how to prepare plants for the herbarium and how to perform species determination by using a specific handbook, that will be provided to students. Other practical exercises will be done at the Botanical Garden Città Study of Milan University, where students will be encouraged to autonomously perform angiosperm species determination. The teacher and teaching assistants will be present in order to help students.
The practical approach will end with a guided visit to the Botanical Garden to observe in more detail lower plants (Musci, Hepaticae, Ferns) and some plants belonging to Gnetophyta (Ephedra, Welwitschia).

Attendance to lessons is recommended.
Teaching Resources
GEROLA F.M., Biologia Vegetale sistematica filogenetica. III Ed. UTET Torino
Scientific papers and additional files will be suggested on different topics and distributed by Ariel.
Morphology of land plants
Course syllabus
Structure of prokaryotic cells; cell wall composition of Gram+ and Gram-; Cyanobacteria as Gram- cells; their importance during plant cell evolution, the endosymbiont theory to explain the ability of plants to perform the photosynthetic process.
Glucose transport and storage as starch into the amyloplasts.
Organization of corm plants. Meristematic tissues, teguments, parenchymatic tissues. Different kinds of collenchymatic and sclerencymatic tissues. Xilem, floem and their distribution in different types of vascular bundles. Distribution of vascular bundles into stems of Antophyta.
Anatomy of leaves, roots and stems of herbacean and wood plants. Mechanism of water transpot.

Some species of cyanobacteria are also able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen containing compounds, that could be used by plants.
Peculiarity of plant cells, with respect to prokaryotic cells and to animal cells. Structural organization of cell membranes. The plasma membrane, from the mosaic fluid model to lipid raft microdomains. Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and their functions. Ultrastructure and function of the Golgi apparatus (dictyosomes in plant cells), in elaborating glycoproteins and molecules of cell wall matrix.
Exocytosis and endocytosis in maintaining membrane cell economy. Membrane trafficking and post-Golgi secretion toward the plasma membrane and to vacuoles. Structure and functions of vacuoles as a storage compartment for waste products of cell metabolism and for secondary metabolites. Furthermore, vacuoles play a key role in cell distention during the cell differentiation process.
Detailed description of cell walls components (lamella mediana, primary and secondary cell wall). Mechanisms regulating the synthesis and deposition of matrix and cellulose microfibrils. Morphology and role of dictyosomes in pectins and emicellulose deposition. Description of molecules constituting cell wall matrix. Role of cellulose synthase in organizing cellulose polymers. Eventual cell walls modifications by deposition of cutin, lignin, suberin or sporopollenin during cell differentiation.
Ultrastructure and functions of different classes of plastids: proplastds, chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, etioplasts. Photosynthesis in C3, C4 and CAM plants.
Glucose transport and starch storage into the amyloplasts.
Organization of corm plants. Meristematic tissues, teguments, parenchymatic tissues. Different kinds of collenchymatic and sclerencymatic tissues. Xilem, floem and their distribution in different types of vascular bundles. Distribution of vascular bundles into stems of Antophyta.
Anatomy of leaves, roots and stems of herbacean and wood plants. Mechanism of water transport.
Teaching methods
The course comprises lectures (traditional teaching method) during which the teacher give a detailed explanation of topics. Students are encouraged to ask questions to teacher and, in the meantime the teacher also will asks questions to students trying to stimulate reasoning.
Practice exercises will be held, in which the teacher will present movies showing how to prepare plant cells and tissues to be observed by light microscopy. Images acquired by the microscope will be showed and explained. Moreover, each student will stay in the lab to autonomously observe all samples which have been already exposed. The teacher and teaching assistants will be present in order to help students.
Attendance to lessons is recommended.
Teaching Resources
Biologia delle piante
P.H. Raven, R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn
ZANICHELLI
Morphology of land plants
BIO/01 - GENERAL BOTANY - University credits: 6
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Shifts:
turno 1
Professor: Miranda Mendes Marta Adelina
turno 2
Professor: Miranda Mendes Marta Adelina
turno 3
Professor: Moscatelli Alessandra
turno 4
Professor: Moscatelli Alessandra
Systematic Botany
BIO/02 - SYSTEMATIC BOTANY - University credits: 6
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 40 hours

M - Z

Lesson period
year
During the first semester lessons will be given in asynchronous modality through ppt audio recording uploaded on the ariel website. Weekly meetings will be performed in synchronous modality on zoom or teams to discuss and clarify the subjects treated in the ppt lessons. Lab classes will be given partly in asynchronius modality and partly in classroom. During classroom lessons, students will autonomously observe histological sections shown within the asynchronous lessons.
Oral exams will take place online; details on the modality will be given at the enrollment. Written exams will be held in classroom, organized into turns as a function of the number of attendants.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic concepts of biological molecules and plant cell morphology. Elementary knowledge of angiosperm organs morphology and reproduction.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam could be made in two different ways:
1- As a whole; in this case the exam requires an oral discussion on topics that are reported in the program of both parts of the course. Recognition of a plant organ section and description of tissues which are present in the image, with special emphasis to cytological characteristics.
Description of taxonomic characters and of evolutionary relationships among plant taxa, from Algae to Angiosperms, including the evolution of reproductive strategies. Moreover, the exam comprises the evaluation and discussion of the herbarium prepared by the student.

2- The student could make the exam in two times:
a) A fist part called prova in itinere (at the end of 1st semester), will concern topics of the first part of the course only (Forma e Funzioni delle Piante Terrestri, see point 1). This written exam comprises six open questions and the image representing the section of a plant organ that should be recognized and described by indicating all different tissues. Students will have two hours to complete the exam. The exam will be evaluated in 18-30/30.
b) The second part consists in an oral discussion on themes treated in the second part of the course (Botanica Sistematica 2nd semester, see point 1). This part of exam also comprises the discussion of the herbarium prepared by the student.
Students should acquire a good knowledge of plant cell biology, of the histology and anatomy of plants from Algae to Angiosperms. Moreover, they should know plant taxonomy in order to distinguish among all different plant taxa, with special emphasis to Angiosperm species identification.
Students are particularly encouraged to develop their ability of thinking to correlate morphological and reproductive strategy changes to the evolutionary process.
The final score will take in consideration the marks of the prova in itinere and of the second part of the exam.
Systematic Botany
Course syllabus
Basic background concerning plant evolution and classification methods: difference between artificial and natural methods. The concept of species and how to indicate the species name; the hierarchy of systematic categories.
Biology of plant reproductive strategies: agamic and gamic reproduction, reproduction by spore delivery. The importance of meiosis in land colonization. Plant ontogenetic cycles from Algae to Angiosperms.
Sexual plant reproduction: different types of fertilization during the evolutionary process following colonization of lands. Reproductive structure modifications allowed led to gametangia and sporangia formation. Changes of land plants life cycle in the evolutionary process, during the adaptation of plants to subaerial environment. Morphological and functional changes of gametohytes following the appearance of plants which form microsporangia and macrosporangia.

The heterogeneity of plants: differences between thallus and corm plants.
Algae: general features and specific taxonomic characters concerning cytology, thallus morphology, reproduction and ecology of Rhodophyta, Phaeophyta, Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Charophyta.
Colonization of lands: strategies of plants to avoid the excess of transpiration induced progressive changes in the organization of reproductive structures and the origin of tissues and organs typical of corm plants.
Systematic of Bryophyta: taxonomic characters of both gametophytes and sporophytes to discern among three classes: Musci, Hepaticae and Anthocerotae.
Systematic of pteridophyta; taxonomic characters of sporophytes to discern among different phyla of Lycophyta, Sphenophyta e Pterophyta. Reproduction strategies of different taxa performing or not, two different kind of sporangia.
Systematic of Gimnosperms; taxonomic characters of Ginkgophyta, Cycadophyta, Gnetophyta e Coniferophyta and their reproductive strategies, with special emphasis to ovules/male gametes structure and fertilization process.
Systematic of Anthophyta; taxonomic characters of two classes of Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons and their reproductive strategies.
Taxonomic characters of the main families
Teaching methods
The course comprises lectures (traditional teaching method) during which the teacher give a detailed explanation of topics. Students are encouraged to ask questions to teacher and, in the meantime the teacher also will asks questions to students trying to stimulate reasoning.

Practice exercises will be held, in which the teacher will present movies showing how to make observation/recognition of Algae, of Pterophyta sporangia and of Spermatophyta micro- macrosporangia, by using light microscopy. In addition, the teacher will show how to prepare plants for the herbarium and how to perform species determination by using a specific handbook, that will be provided to students. Other practical exercises will be done at the Botanical Garden Città Study of Milan University, where students will be encouraged to autonomously perform angiosperm species determination. The teacher and teaching assistants will be present in order to help students.
The practical approach will end with a guided visit to the Botanical Garden to observe in more detail lower plants (Musci, Hepaticae, Ferns) and some plants belonging to Gnetophyta (Ephedra, Welwitschia).

Attendance to lessons is recommended.
Teaching Resources
GEROLA F.M., Biologia Vegetale sistematica filogenetica. III Ed. UTET Torino
Scientific papers and additional files will be suggested on different topics and distributed by Ariel.
Morphology of land plants
Course syllabus
Structure of prokaryotic cells; cell wall composition of Gram+ and Gram-; Cyanobacteria as Gram- cells; their importance during plant cell evolution, the endosymbiont theory to explain the ability of plants to perform the photosynthetic process.
Glucose transport and storage as starch into the amyloplasts.
Organization of corm plants. Meristematic tissues, teguments, parenchymatic tissues. Different kinds of collenchymatic and sclerencymatic tissues. Xilem, floem and their distribution in different types of vascular bundles. Distribution of vascular bundles into stems of Antophyta.
Anatomy of leaves, roots and stems of herbacean and wood plants. Mechanism of water transpot.

Some species of cyanobacteria are also able to convert atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen containing compounds, that could be used by plants.
Peculiarity of plant cells, with respect to prokaryotic cells and to animal cells. Structural organization of cell membranes. The plasma membrane, from the mosaic fluid model to lipid raft microdomains. Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum and their functions. Ultrastructure and function of the Golgi apparatus (dictyosomes in plant cells), in elaborating glycoproteins and molecules of cell wall matrix.
Exocytosis and endocytosis in maintaining membrane cell economy. Membrane trafficking and post-Golgi secretion toward the plasma membrane and to vacuoles. Structure and functions of vacuoles as a storage compartment for waste products of cell metabolism and for secondary metabolites. Furthermore, vacuoles play a key role in cell distention during the cell differentiation process.
Detailed description of cell walls components (lamella mediana, primary and secondary cell wall). Mechanisms regulating the synthesis and deposition of matrix and cellulose microfibrils. Morphology and role of dictyosomes in pectins and emicellulose deposition. Description of molecules constituting cell wall matrix. Role of cellulose synthase in organizing cellulose polymers. Eventual cell walls modifications by deposition of cutin, lignin, suberin or sporopollenin during cell differentiation.
Ultrastructure and functions of different classes of plastids: proplastds, chloroplasts, chromoplasts, amyloplasts, etioplasts. Photosynthesis in C3, C4 and CAM plants.
Glucose transport and starch storage into the amyloplasts.
Organization of corm plants. Meristematic tissues, teguments, parenchymatic tissues. Different kinds of collenchymatic and sclerencymatic tissues. Xilem, floem and their distribution in different types of vascular bundles. Distribution of vascular bundles into stems of Antophyta.
Anatomy of leaves, roots and stems of herbacean and wood plants. Mechanism of water transport.
Teaching methods
The course comprises lectures (traditional teaching method) during which the teacher give a detailed explanation of topics. Students are encouraged to ask questions to teacher and, in the meantime the teacher also will asks questions to students trying to stimulate reasoning.
Practice exercises will be held, in which the teacher will present movies showing how to prepare plant cells and tissues to be observed by light microscopy. Images acquired by the microscope will be showed and explained. Moreover, each student will stay in the lab to autonomously observe all samples which have been already exposed. The teacher and teaching assistants will be present in order to help students.
Attendance to lessons is recommended.
Teaching Resources
Biologia delle piante
P.H. Raven, R.F. Evert, S.E. Eichhorn
ZANICHELLI
Morphology of land plants
BIO/01 - GENERAL BOTANY - University credits: 6
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Onelli Elisabetta
Systematic Botany
BIO/02 - SYSTEMATIC BOTANY - University credits: 6
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday-Friday on appointment
2 floor building C Department of Biosciences