Clinical Microbiology and related diagnostic techniques

A.Y. 2020/2021
5
Max ECTS
50
Overall hours
SSD
MED/07 MED/46
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student will understand the mechanisms and the direct and indirect methodologies for an appropriate microbiological investigations.
Student will also know the most common pathogens responsible of human infections as well as:
1) the morphological, cultural, antigenic characteristics useful for their identification within the diagnostic process in order to define the correct aetiology of an infection disease.
2) the routes of transmission and the pathogenetic factors of infectious agents as useful elements for choosing the most appropriate tools for a correct microbiological investigation in the clinical Lab. This understanding will start with the choice of the type of sample to be analyzed, the methods of samples collections as well as the methods of storage and samples transportation, and finally the relative diagnostic tests.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will learn the general and clinical characteristics related to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections. These features will serve as a basis for applying the main detection techniques for the main microorganisms as well as for the learning of those diagnostic techniques useful for the following year (the third one).
Student will be able to learn the most relevant diagnostic techniques in the microbiological field. She/he will also learn the basis of the analytical flow within a typical Microbiology Laboratory.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
- The program of the course will not be modified
- Teaching resources will not be modified
- Teaching method: on-line teaching on Microsoft Teams platform
- Assessment method: oral exam on Microsoft Teams platform
Prerequisites for admission
Student must have previously acquired the basic knowledge of the most relevant laboratory techniques in microbiology. Understanding the basics methods of microbiological sowing, cultivation and growth of the main pathogenic microorganisms, as well as knowing the basic differences between bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will in a written form by including all the topics listed in the program. In particular, each student will receive a written test with open questions and multiple choice cross questions If required, in particular case, there is the possibility to do oral examination. The result of examination is comunicated by e-mail message after registration on electronic register.
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Course syllabus
Criteria of classification of human bacteria.
Description of the general characteristics of the bacterial groups listed below, including:
· Morphology and staining characteristics,
· Physiology in relation to cultural and identification characteristics,
· Antigens structure in relation to their of pathogenicity, classification and identification,
· Production of enzymes and toxins in relation to pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis,
· Sensitivity-resistance to the main antibacterial drugs,
· Description of the most relevant species from the medical point of view,
· Distinctive features of the species,
· Epidemiology (habitats, sources and transmission routes) and prevention.
· Staphylococci
· Streptococci
· Neisseriae
· Corynebacterium
· Listeria
· Spore-forming bacilli
· Mycobacteria
· Enterobacteriaceae
· Pseudomonas
· Vibrio, Helicobacter and Campylobacter
· Yersiniae
· Brucellae
· Emophylus and Bordetelle
· Spirochetes
· Rickettsiae
· Chlamydiae
· Mycoplasmas
PARASITOLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of diseases caused by protozoa and multicellular parasites.
Sources of infection and transmission pathways, parasite-host relationship, pathogenicity factors. Morphological characteristics, replication cycle, and parasite-host interaction of:
· Giardia intestinalis
· Trichomonas vaginalis
· Leishmania spp.
· Tripanosoma spp.
· Entamoeba histolytica
· Naegleria fowleri
· Plasmodium spp.
· Toxoplasma gondii
· Pneumocistis carinii
· Balantidium coli
Main helminths responsible for human infestations belonging to:
· Tapeworms
· Nematodes
· Trematodes
VIROLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of diseases caused by human viruses.
Sources of infection and transmission routes, virus-host relationship.
Classification criteria of human viruses
DNA viruses
RNA viruses
Replication cycle and infection caused by:
· Hepatotropic virus
· Respiratory viruses
· Enteric viruses
· Retrovirus - HIV
· Herpesvirus
MYCOLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of human diseases caused by fungi.
Sources of infection, transmission routes and host relationship.
Laboratory diagnosis of fungal infections.
Classification of the main forms of mycosis
Reproduction and pathogenic characteristics of:
· Candida,
· Cryptococcus
· Aspergillus spp.
· Dermatophytes
· Dimorphic yeasts
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools.
These methods will guide the student to the best conditions for learning clinical microbiology and the main techniques related to.
By slides showing, each student will be provided with all the tools necessary to pass the exams.
Teaching Resources
Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Medical and biotechnology laboratory techniques
Course syllabus
LABORATORY MEDICINE
· The analysis laboratory
· The microbiology laboratory
· Fundamentals, objectives and aims
LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES
· Pre-analytical phase
· Type of microbiological samples
· Assessment of the suitability of the samples
· Sample acceptance modality
· Analytical phase
· Post Analytical phase
SAFETY IN THE LABORATORY
BIOLOGICAL RISKS RELATED TO THE MICROORGANISMS:
· Class I microorganisms
· Class II microorganisms
· Class III microorganisms
· Class IV microorganisms
GENERAL CRITERIA FOR DIAGNOSTIC ASSESSMENT OF BACTERIAL DISEASES
BACTERIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
Direct diagnosis
· Factors affecting microbiological growth
· Method of microorganisms treatment and their culture
· Biological sample sowing techniques on culture media
· Staining of microorganism from agar or broth, and from biological samples
· Simple biochemistry test (catalase, oxidase, coagulase ...) during sample processing
Indirect diagnosis
MICOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
· Factors that condition mycological growth
· Microorganisms treatment method and their culture
· Sowing techniques on culture media
· Staining techniques
VIROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS
· General principles of microbiological diagnosis
· Identification tests
DIAGNOSIS OF PRIONS DISEASE
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools.
These methods will guide the student to the best conditions for learning clinical microbiology and the main techniques related to.
By slides showing, each student will be provided with all the tools necessary to pass the exams.
Teaching Resources
Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Medical and biotechnology laboratory techniques
MED/46 - BIOTECHNOLOGY AND METHODS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Parapini Silvia
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Sisto Francesca