General characteristics of living beings. Cell theory.
Chemical bases of life: atoms, ions, elements, molecules, polymer macromolecules; chemical bond and their biological role; chemical composition of living substance: water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. DNA replication, transcription and translation of genetic information.
Autotrophy, heterotrophy. Transformations of matter and energy demand: catabolism, anabolism, metabolism. How cells derive energy from food: metabolic pathways and chemical energy.
Basic techniques for morphological analysis of cells and tissues; tools and sample preparation for microscopic and submicroscopic analysis.
Organizational levels of living substance. Viruses and subviral agents. Prokaryotes ed eukaryotes. Unicellular and multicellular organisms.
Eukaryotic animal cell. Cell membranes: chemical composition and structure; permeability and transport; plasma membrane specializations (microvilli, cilia, glycocalyx, junctions).
Endomembrane system: endoplasmic reticulum; the Golgi apparatus; lysosomes; exocytosis, endocytosis, vesicular trafficking; mitochondria; peroxisomes; the nucleus: nuclear envelope, nucleoskeleton, chromatin, chromosomes; nucleolus, structure and biogenesis of ribosomes; ribosomes and protein synthesis.
Cytoskeleton and cell motility.
The eukaryotic cell cycle. Eukaryotic cell division: mitosis and meiosis. Gametogenesis. Fertilization and embryonic development (introduction).
Epithelial tissues: covering/lining epithelia and glandular epithelia.
Connective tissues: connective tissue proper; specialised connective tissue: adipose tissue; cartilage; bone tissue; blood; lymphoid tissue.
Muscle tissue: skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue; muscle contraction.
Nervous tissue; synapses; glia.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have specific knowledge specific knowledge of the main biological structures - biological (macro)molecules, animal cells and tissues - their functions and main interactions. Furthermore, students must have a basic understanding of the structure and main characteristics of viruses and bacteria.
Traditional: frontal lessons supported by projected material.
Dalle Donne I., Gagliano N., et al., "Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica". Edizioni EdiSES, 2010.
Becker, Kleinsmith, Hardin, Bertoni, "Il mondo della cellula". Pearson, VIII ed., 2014.
Alberts et al., "L'essenziale di biologia molecolare della cellula". Zanichelli, IV ed. ital., 2015.
Dalle Donne I. et al., "Citologia e Istologia", Edizioni EdiSES, 2019.
Dalle Donne I. et al., "Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica", Edizioni EdiSES, 2019.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The student preparation check will consist of a written test that involves the recognition of animal tissues and animal cells and cellular structures (light and electronic microscopy); each exam test is composed of 15 light and electronic microscopy images (time available: 30 minutes); passing the written examination (with the minimum rating of 18/30) is required to access the oral examination, which will cover all the program carried during the course. The outcome of the written test and that of the oral test will contribute to the final assessment for about 40% and 60%, respectively.