General and environmental biology with elements of Histology

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
68
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The purpose of this Course is to provide a straightforward explanation of the way in which the most important molecules and organelles of the cell, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic, cooperate to create a system that moves, feeds, responds to stimuli, grows and divides, i.e., in a word, that is alive.
Expected learning outcomes
The knowledge/skill acquired at the end of the Course will be: what is that we mean for life, how the life is likely appeared on the Earth, which are the biological macromolecules and how they are built, how such macromolecules cooperate on the ground of their structure/function, which are the cellular organelles, their role, appearance and meaning during evolution. Students will be able not only to identify a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell/organism, but also to understand that higher organisms are communities of specific and differentiated cells derived by growth and division from a single founder cell, the oocyte fertilized by the spermatozoon. Through observation at the light microscopy, with relative explanation, of a wide panel of histological specimen, students are qualified to recognize the kind of animal tissue and the basic function that the selected tissue plays in the general homeostasis.
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Classroom lectures will be delivered remotely through commented Powerpoint presentations or lesson recording. Once a week the teacher will answer any questions from students via the Zoom platform and he will always answer by mail.
The histology experiences will be carried out remotely using "digital slide" platforms. For interested students, 2-4 hours of "real" experience with the microscope will be organized (following all the health guidelines necessary to carry them out in safe conditions).
Course syllabus
Properties of the life - Cell Theory - Scientific methodology - Unity and diversity of cells - Different levels of complexity - Sizes of cells and organelles and the units in which they are measured -The light microscopy - The electron microscopy - Biochemical methods: subcellular fractionation and differential centrifugation - Small and big biological molecules - Properties of water - Natural elements and compounds - Carbon as outstanding element - Condensation and hydrolysis reactions - Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids - A trip inside the cell - Procaryotes: Eubacteria and Archeobacteria - Eukaryotes: Protista, single-cell organisms, and metazoans, pluri-cell organisms - The plasma membrane: structure and function - The asymmetry of the membrane: its meaning - Osmosis - Facilitated diffusion and active transport - Cell communication: general principles - The intracellular membranes: the meaning of cell compartmentalization - The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi complex - Lysosomes - Vacuoles - Peroxisomes - Mitochondria: notes on their structure and function - The production of ATP - Chloroplasts - The endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts - Nuclear envelope - Chromatin organization - Nucleosomes - Nucleolus - Transport outside and inside the nucleus - Ribosomes - Protein synthesis: general principles - The Cytoskeleton - Microtubules and the centrosome - Stable microtubules: cilia and flagella - Dynamic microtubules: the mitotic spindle - Actin: globular actin and actin filaments - Cell movement - Intermediate filaments: notes on cell junctions - Cell cycle and mitosis - Mitosis in unicellular versus pluricellular organisms - Asexual reproduction (fission, budding) and sexual reproduction - Gametes and meiosis - Crossing over and genetic recombination - Fertilization and early development. Histology: Epithelia and glands; Connective tissues; Cartilage; Bone; Adipose tissue; Blood (Immunity system); Lymphoid tissue; Muscular tissues (smooth, skeletal, cardiac); Nervous tissue (Neurons, synapses; glial cells).
Prerequisites for admission
none
Teaching methods
Classroom lectures, interaction with students based on lecture slides and additional material provided on ariel at http://tvaccaribga.ariel.ctu.unimi.it
Autotest and classroom test activities based on multiple choice test simulation. Hands on activities in the histology lab based on identification at the microscope of tissue sections on slides.
Teaching Resources
General Biology: Solomon, Berg, Martin. Elementi di BIOLOGIA, VI Ediz., EdiSES
Histology: Zaccheo e Pestarino. Citologia, Istologia e Anatomia Microscopica - Pearson
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam (multiple choice) for the general biology part. Open questions for the histology part. Oral exam based on discussion of mistakes in the written exam.
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 8
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 56 hours

M - Z

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Classroom lectures will be delivered remotely through commented Powerpoint presentations or lesson recording. Once a week the teacher will answer any questions from students via the Zoom platform and he will always answer by mail.
The histology experiences will be carried out remotely using "digital slide" platforms. For interested students, 2-4 hours of "real" experience with the microscope will be organized (following all the health guidelines necessary to carry them out in safe conditions).
Course syllabus
Properties of the life - Cell Theory - Scientific methodology - Unity and diversity of cells - Different levels of complexity - Sizes of cells and organelles and the units in which they are measured -The light microscopy - The electron microscopy - Biochemical methods: subcellular fractionation and differential centrifugation - Small and big biological molecules - Properties of water - Natural elements and compounds - Carbon as outstanding element - Condensation and hydrolysis reactions - Macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids - A trip inside the cell - Procaryotes: Eubacteria and Archeobacteria - Eukaryotes: Protista, single-cell organisms, and metazoans, pluri-cell organisms - The plasma membrane: structure and function - The asymmetry of the membrane: its meaning - Osmosis - Facilitated diffusion and active transport - Cell communication: general principles - The intracellular membranes: the meaning of cell compartmentalization - The smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum - Golgi complex - Lysosomes - Vacuoles - Peroxisomes - Mitochondria: notes on their structure and function - The production of ATP - Chloroplasts - The endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts - Nuclear envelope - Chromatin organization - Nucleosomes - Nucleolus - Transport outside and inside the nucleus - Ribosomes - Protein synthesis: general principles - The Cytoskeleton - Microtubules and the centrosome - Stable microtubules: cilia and flagella - Dynamic microtubules: the mitotic spindle - Actin: globular actin and actin filaments - Cell movement - Intermediate filaments: notes on cell junctions - Cell cycle and mitosis - Mitosis in unicellular versus pluricellular organisms - Asexual reproduction (fission, budding) and sexual reproduction - Gametes and meiosis - Crossing over and genetic recombination - Fertilization and early development.
Histology: Epithelia and glands; Connective tissues; Cartilage; Bone; Adipose tissue; Blood (Immunity system); Lymphoid tissue; Muscular tissues (smooth, skeletal, cardiac); Nervous tissue (Neurons, synapses; glial cells).
Prerequisites for admission
None
Teaching methods
Classroom lectures, question and answer sessions, group activities to improve concepts learning. Interaction with students based on lecture slides and additional material provided on the platform Ariel https://gcolombobgaeimz.ariel.ctu.unimi.it.
Classroom test activities for histology (open questions) and biology (multiple choice) based on test simulations. Hands on activities in the histology lab based on identification at the microscope of tissue sections on slides.
Teaching Resources
Genaral Biology and Histology (all in one):
Dalle Donne I. et al., Citologia e Istologia, I Ediz. 2019, EdiSES

General Biology:
Solomon, Berg, Martin, Elementi di BIOLOGIA, VI Ediz., EdiSES

Histology:
Dalle Donne I., Gagliano N., Bertolini B. et al. Istologia ed elementi di anatomia microscopica, Ediz. 2009, EdiSES
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written exam: Three open questions for the histology part and thirty multiple choice questions for the biology part.
Oral exam: Questions based on histology and biology programs.
BIO/06 - COMPARATIVE ANATOMY AND CYTOLOGY - University credits: 8
Practicals with elements of theory: 12 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Colombo Graziano
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday 10.00-18.00 (by appointment)
Department of Biosciences, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan.
Reception:
Thursday 17-18 (by appointment)
office 2b