General chemistry with elements of physical chemistry

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The aim of the teaching is to provide a knowledge of basic chemistry, preparatory to the subsequent teachings of Organic Chemistry and Biological Chemistry. More specifically, the teaching will provide the minimum tools necessary for understanding the chemical language and basic topics (atoms, chemical bonds, chemical reactions, chemical, thermodynamic and electrochemical equilibrium). This basic knowledge constitutes the necessary tools for understanding the chemical language of life, an indispensable element for the future biological studies.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the teaching, the student will have to reach skills relating to the structure of matter and chemical bonds. The concepts learned will guide the graduate to work competently in all phases of the experimental and analytical management of chemical processes. In particular, the basic concepts of nomenclature, chemical formulas and stoichiometry, and the concepts concerning solutions, dissociations in solution, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, pH and buffer solutions must be applied.
Course syllabus and organization

A - L

Lesson period
First semester
Links to the audio-visual material will be posted on Ariel. Syllabus, resources and assessment remain unchanged. The written exam will be carried out on exam,net.
Course syllabus
Atomic structure: Nuclides, isotopes and chemical elements. Molecular formula and formula unit. Atomic mass and molecular mass. Mole and Avogadro constant. Quantization of energy and photons. Atomic models. Orbitals and quantum numbers. Electronic configuration of the elements. Periodic table of elements and periodic properties.
Chemical bond and molecular geometry: Lewis structures. Ionic and covalent bonds. Electronegativity and bond polarity. Molecular geometry: VSEPR and valence bond theory. Intermolecular interactions.
Formulas and systematic nomenclature.
Solutions: Concentration. Dilution. Molar fraction. Colligative properties.
Chemical reactions: Chemical reactions and chemical equations. Balance and principle of mass conservation. Net ionic equation and principle of charge conservation. Chemical equilibrium: equilibrium constant and reaction quotient. Le Chatelier's principle. Reactions in aqueous solution: electrolytes and non-electrolytes, precipitation reactions and solubility equilibria, acid-base reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions.
Gaseous state: Pressure and temperature. Ideal gas law. Molar volume. Ideal gas constant. Gaseous mixtures: partial pressure and partial volume, Dalton's law.
Acids and bases: Definitions of acid and base. Acid-base equilibria. Calculation of pH. Buffer solutions. Titration curves.
Chemical thermodynamics: State functions. First principle of thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Exothermic and endothermic reactions. Standard conditions. Second principle of thermodynamics. Entropy. Gibbs free energy.
Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and standard potentials. Cell potential and equilibrium constant. Nernst's equation.
Prerequisites for admission
Teaching methods
Lecture-style lessons.
Teaching Resources
Raymond Chang, Kenneth Goldsby "Fondamenti di chimica generale (2a edizione)" McGraw-Hill, 2015.
Raymond Chang, Kenneth Goldsby "General chemistry. The essential concepts (7th edition)" McGraw-Hill, 2014.
Alessandro Caselli, Silvia Rizzato, Francesca Tessore "Stechiometria (5a edizione)" EdiSES, 2015.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examination consists of a written test including various exercises and problems similar to those presented in class and linked in Ariel.
CHIM/02 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours

M - Z

Lesson period
First semester
Due to the SARS-CoV2 emergency in 2019-2020, the course will be held remotely (in synchronous and asynchronous mode) in the first half of the AY 2020-2021. Lectures (40 hours) will be recorded on the Personal Computer of the teacher. The videos will be made available through the ARIEL platform and/or "Microsoft Teams" platform. Some activities and exercises (16 hours) will be carried out in synchronous mode on the University's "Microsoft Teams". The same platform and other utility of Office365 will be used to interact with the students by assigning activities. The teacher will get in touch with students by e-mail, by the forum space available in the ARIEL platform or by using various communication tools.
Course syllabus
Program information:
Electrons in Atoms: Atomic particles and their properties. Chemical Elements. Atomic Weights, Formula Weights and Molecular Weights. The Avogadro Constant and the concept of the Mole. Quantum Theory. The Bohr Atom. The Uncertainty Principle. Quantum Numbers and Electron Orbitals. Electron Spin. Multielectron Atoms. Electron Configurations of the Elements.
The Periodic Law and the Periodic Table. Electron Configuration and the Periodic Table. Periodic properties: Metals and Nonmetals, Atomic Radius, Ionization Energy, Electron Affinity.
Chemical Bonding: Lewis theory. Ionic and Covalent Bonding. Electronegativity. Lewis Structures. Resonance. Exceptions to the Octet Rule. VSEPR Theory and Molecular Shapes. Introduction to the Valence Bond Theory. Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals. Intermolecular forces.
Formulas and systematic nomenclature: Oxidations States. Systematic Nomenclature of Inorganic Compounds.
Solutions: Solution Concentration. Solution Dilution. Vapour Pressures of Solutions. Freezing Point. Depression and Boiling Point Elevation.
Chemical Reactions: Chemical reactions and the Chemical Equation. Balancing. Determining the Limiting Reagent. Chemical Equilibrium. The Equilibrium Constant Expression. The reaction Quotient. Le Chatelier's Principle. Reactions in aqueous solutions: electrolytes and nonelectrolytes, Precipitation Reactions, Acid-Base Reactions, Oxidation-Reduction Reactions.
Gases: The concept of Pressure and absolute Temperature. The Gas Laws: Boyle's law, Charles's Law and Avogadro's Law The Ideal Gas Equation. Mixtures of gases: partial pressure and partial volume. Dalton's Law and Amagat's Law. Real gas.
Acids and Bases: Arrhenius Theory. Bronsted-Lowry Theory. Strong Acids and Strong Bases. Self-ionization of water. Definition of pH and pOH. Weak Acids and Weak Bases. Polyprotic Acids. Hydrolysis. Buffer Solutions. Neutralization reactions and Titration Curves.
Thermochemistry: Functions of State. The First Law of Thermodynamics. Enthalpy. Entropy. The Second Law of Thermodynamics. Standard Free Energy Change. Free Energy Change and Equilibrium.
Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells, standard reduction potentials
Prerequisites for admission
There are no prerequisites other than high-school level mathematics and physical/natural science.
Teaching methods
Teaching Mode: Traditional Lectures. Interactive presentations partially supported by projected lecture slides. Attendance is highly recommended. Copies of the lecture slides, including the homework problems, will be made available on the Ariel web site.
Teaching Resources
Copies of the lecture slides, including the homework problems, will be made available on the Ariel web site (
Recommended Book:
R. Chang, Fondamenti di Chimica Generale, McGraw-Hill
J. Kotz John, P. Treichel jr., G.C. Weaver, CHIMICA, Editore: Edises
Exercise book:
A. Caselli, S. Rizzato, F. Tessore "Stechiometria dal testo di M. Freni e A. Sacco" Editore: Eises
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is written and divided into three parts: Part A (stoichiometric problems), Part B (questions) and Test. To pass the exam, it is needed to obtain the sufficiency separately in all parts (18 over 30 in part A/ B and in the test). Exercises are of the same type as the ones solved in class and taken from the coursebook.
CHIM/02 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Rizzato Silvia
Every day from 10 am to 4 pm by agreeing an appointment by e-mail
Dipartimento di Chimica – Corpo A – Piano rialzato – Stanza R36