General pathology and immunology

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course focuses on the molecular and biotechnological aspects of general pathology and immunology
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire basic knowledge of the main molecular and cellular mechanisms representing the pathogenic basis of human pathology. The course includes a focused part on immunology and the role of immunomediated mechanisms of disease. Students will also acquire information on potentials and limitations of experimental models available. The journal club sessions will allow them to develop critical reading, presentation, and scientific data discussion abilities.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Any notice regarding updates or changes of Covid-19 rules will be communicated by the Didactic Secretary
Lectures and other face-to-face teaching activities will be delivered in blended mode, partly in person and partly online, preferably in synchronous mode with only specific contributes in asynchronous mode. Specifically, the "in presence" lessons will be planned from Monday to Wednesday, while during the remaining days of the week will be planned online lessons. In line with the Covid safety protocol approved by our University, the "in presence" lessons will be possible by rotation with seat reservations made by using the available app easy lesson.

All lectures will be recorded and made available to the students on dedicated platform (e.g. Ariel, TEAMS, etc.).

In case of new suspension of "in presence" lessons, all the face-to-face teaching activities students will be switched to synchronous distance learning. Each hour of the lesson will include 45min of formal teaching followed by 15min of discussion / interaction / question time.
Course syllabus
General pathology
Cellular and tissue responses to stress.
Processes of cell death: necrosis and apoptosis.
Degenerative processes of accumulation.
Biological and physical barriers of innate immunity.
Origin and function of cells of the innate immunity.
The endothelium and leukocyte recruitment.
Mechanisms of pathogen recognition: TLR structure and signalling properties.
Mechanisms of pathogen killing: phagocytosis and reactive oxygen intermediates.
Soluble mediators of innate immunity.
The complement system.
Chronic inflammation.
Tissue repair and granulation.
Fibrosis and sclerosis.
Pathogenesis and risk factors of atherosclerosis.
Atherosclerosis: mechanisms of plaque generation and complications.
The coagulation cascade.
Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of bleeding disorders.
Pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of thrombotic diseases.

Principles of immunology and immunopathology
Features of acquired immune response: specificity, memory, tolerance.
Primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.
Antigen-presenting cells.
Antigen processing and presentation.
Structure and function of major histocompatibility complex class I and II.
Intrathymic development: negative and positive selection.
Generation, structure and signal transduction of the TCR.
Differentiation, activation and maturation of cytotoxic and helper T lymphocytes.
Differentiation, activation and maturation of B lymphocytes.
Generation, structure and signal transduction of the BCR.
Structure and biological properties of antibodies.
Failure mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance.
Congenital and acquired immunodeficiencies.
Hypersensitivity reactions (I, II, III and IV type).
Tolerance and rejection of organ transplants.

Program Principles of Oncology
Classification of tumors.
Tumor cell biology.
Cancer and cell cycle deregulation.
Chemical, physical and viral carcinogens..
Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes involved in apoptosis.
Genes that maintain the integrity of the genome.
Epigenetic alterations in cancer.
Telomerase activity and erosion of telomeres.
Tumor microenvironment: extracellular matrix and angiogenesis.
Mechanism of invasion and metastasis.
Immunology of cancer.
Prerequisites for admission
Students must have fulfilled all the prerequisite requirements indicated in the study plan: General and cellular biology. Genetics.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons based on teaching material available on the Ariel platform or provided directly in the classroom to students.
Class attendance is free.
Teaching Resources
Patologia generale, Pontieri, Piccin Editore
Le basi patologiche delle malattie, vol. I., Robbins, Cotran, Piccin Editore
Immunobiologia, Janeway, Travers, Walport, Shlomchik, Piccin Editore
Immunologia, infezione, immunità, Pier, Lyczak, Wetzler, Piccin Editor
Assessment methods and Criteria
Exam based on an oral test consisting of 2 questions on general pathology and immunology arguments, respectively, carried out by different teachers and with a mediated assessment. The basic knowledge of the discipline and the capacity for critical reasoning on the study carried out is assessed. The evaluation is expressed in thirtieths.
Informal teaching: 16 hours
Lessons: 72 hours