The course aims at providing theoretical knowledge about the general organizational principles of the human body, including functioning at various levels, from the molecular and cellular to the various systems and the body as a whole; provide knowledge on the functioning of various organ systems and homeostatic mechanisms of the main regulated variables; to learn the relationship between physiological mechanisms and the state of nutrition.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will acquire the fundamental knowledge of human physiological functioning, in particular of the organ systems and the main homeostatic mechanisms. He/she will be able to understand how nutrition influences and is influenced by multiple homeostatic mechanisms and how physiological adaptation is at the basis of the state of nutrition. He/she will therefore be prepared to face nutritional evaluation, dietetics and pathophysiology of food-related diseases and human nutrition.
Lesson period: Second semester
(In case of multiple editions, please check the period, as it may vary)
1. basic concepts: physiologic systems, homeostasis and communication levels; nutritional regulation of gene expression; cell membranes and excitable cells 2. Nervous system: anatomy and functions; membrane potentials; autonomic and somatic nervous systems and sensitivity; physiologic bases of taste and olfaction; higher functions; neutotoxins; 3. endocrinology and metabolism: anatomy and function of endocrine glands; hormones biochemistry, secretion and transport; insulin; epinephrine; thyroid hormones; cortisol andintegrated stress responses. 4. muscle: anatomy and function; neuromuscular junction e sarcomere contraction; muscle metabolism, motor units, contraction control; 5. cardiovascular system: anatomy and function, conduction system, cardiac action potentials; cardiac cycle and output; blood vessels: anatomy and function; Regulation of blood pressure; capillary vessels dynamics and autoregulation; 6. respiratory system: anatomy and function, pulmonary ventilation, gas exchanges and ventilation control, 7. urinary system: anatomy and function; glomerular filtration, reabsorption and secretion mechanisms and control 8. Water, electrolytes, acid-base balance 9. gastrointestinal system: anatomy and function; digestion and nutrients absorption;
Prerequisites for admission
The prerequisite is the knowledge of human biochemistry, and of the basic nutritional elements required for the admission to the degree course
Formal lessons, online tutorials and seminaries
Fisiologia. Cindy l. Stanfield. Edises srl, V edizione 2017 F ondamenti di Fisiologia Umana. Lauralee Sherwood Piccin IV Edizione 2013 Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. Maurice Shils, MD, ScD; Moshe Shike, MD; James Olson, PhD; A. Catherine Ross, PhD. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Material provided by the teacher
Assessment methods and Criteria
Multiple choice test (33 questions, 1 correct answer, 1 hour duration, 1 point per each correct answer), followed by an oral examination aimed to evaluate the ability to organize and to present the knowledge of the main homeostatic mechanisms.