Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest and Qualitative Analysis Laboratory

A.Y. 2020/2021
7
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
CHIM/08
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
Two didactic units composes the course: lectures (Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest) and individual laboratory training (Qualitative Analysis Laboratory).
The main topics of the lectures are the in-depth analysis of the preparatory courses knowledge (General and Inorganic Chemistry, and Stoichiometry and Analytical Chemistry) applied on the qualitative analysis and the learning of laboratory safety rules, basic techniques of the practical experimental chemistry and the analytical procedures to apply during the laboratory experiences, focused on the identification of the inorganic compounds of medicinal and toxicological relevance.
Concerning the experimental practices, the students will improve the technical ability to identify the inorganic substances prescribed by Italian and European Pharmacopoeias.
Expected learning outcomes
By the lectures, the students will improve their knowledge concerning the theoretical and practical aspects related to the qualitative analysis, which they will apply during the individual experimental practices.
By the laboratory experiences (mandatory), the students will acquire expertize to perform the qualitative analysis of inorganic compounds, to complete their knowledge (by means also of other courses: Principles of Quantitative Pharmaceutical Analysis and Laboratory for Quantitative Analysis, and Assays and Methods of Analysis of the Pharmacopoeias and Laboratory of Drug Identification), needed to take the qualifying examination of Pharmacist.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea 1

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Teaching methods
The lessons will be held in the classroom if the situation allows it. Each lesson will be recorded and made available asynchronously through the Ariel platform. Alternatively, if the situation worsens, the lessons will be delivered through the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed synchronously, according to the scheduled time, and asynchronously, because they are recorded on the same platform.
The practical experiences will be held for 50% in the presence in a laboratory suitably equipped for the Covid emergency and for the remaining 50% in the virtual laboratory through a specific application. If this is not possible, all the practical experiences will be carried out in the virtual laboratory. All practical experiences are mandatory regardless of the method of held.

Program and reference material
The program and the reference material of the lectures will not change. All the didactic material will always be made available through the Ariel platform.

Learning verification and assessment criteria
If the situation allows it, the exam will take place in written form according to the methods indicated in the "Modalità di esame" section. Alternatively, the exam will take place orally using Skype or similar platform. In this case, the duration of the test will be approximately 20 minutes and will mainly concern the assessment of the student's ability to apply the acquired notions to analytical problems.
Course syllabus
Program of the lectures:
- Introduction to the inorganic qualitative analysis.
- Safety guidelines in chemistry laboratory and hazard prevention.
- Basic laboratory procedures.
- Theoretical aspects of the dissolution and precipitation processes.
- Salt hydrolysis: acid/base properties of anions, cations and salts.
- Analysis of anions.
- Analysis of cations (analysis by precipitation of six analytical groups).
- Identification methods for unknown inorganic compounds listed in the European Pharmacopoeia (water-soluble and water-insoluble substances).
- Limit tests: principles reported in F.U.
- Introduction to the pharmaceutical, toxicological and biochemical properties of the inorganic compounds analyzed during the laboratory work.

Program of the practical laboratory experiences:
- Introduction to basic techniques in laboratory practice.
- Anion recognition assays.
- Cation recognition assays (periodic analysis by precipitation of six analytical groups).
- Identification of unknown inorganic substances listed in the European Pharmacopoeia (water-soluble and water-insoluble substances).
Prerequisites for admission
The course takes place in the first semester of the second year. The students are expected to have a basic Inorganic Chemistry knowledge.
Teaching methods
The course includes both lectures (Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest unit) and practical laboratory experiences (Qualitative Analysis Laboratory unit).
The unit of Inorganic Analysis of Substances Having Pharmaceutical Interest (5 CFU) consists in lectures preparing the students to experimental laboratory training, which take place at the same time.
The unit of Qualitative Analysis Laboratory (2 CFU) consists in eight individual obligatory laboratory sessions.
Teaching Resources
Recommended books:
- A. Araneo, Chimica Analitica Qualitativa, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
- G. Charlot, Analisi Chimica Qualitativa, Piccin Editore, Padova.
- G. Svela, Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, Edizioni Logman, Harlow.

Reference books:
- F. Savelli, O. Bruno, Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica, Piccin Editore, Padova.
- Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana.
- Farmacopea Europea.

Supporting material:
Avaialble in digital format by download from Ariel site.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam consists of a written test of 13 questions that must be completed in 90 minutes. Each question can be evaluated with a maximum of 2/30 for a total amount of 26/30. The remaining 4/30 derive from the evaluation of the laboratory activity (Qualitative Analysis Laboratory unit).
Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 5
Lessons: 40 hours
Qualitative Analysis Laboratory
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Single bench laboratory practical: 32 hours
Shifts:
Turno 1
Professor: Pedretti Alessandro
Turno 2
Professor: Meneghetti Fiorella

Linea 2

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Due to the health emergency, the course is provided with the following changes:

- Teaching methods
Lessons are conducted in synchronous mode remotely following the timetable, but are also available in asynchronous mode since recorded (Microsoft Teams)
As regards to the experimental practices, at obligatory frequency, they are provided respectively:
½ in presence, in the educational laboratory opportunely supplied
½ in synchronous virtual mode (Microsoft Teams), with the support of suitable videos.

- Programme and didactic materials
The course program is unchanged while considering the didactic material, in addition to the reference/consultation texts and the Power Point presentations of the lessons (available on the course site in Ariel), are accessible recordings of the lessons and the virtual practices (Microsoft Teams), and the latter, if necessary, are supported by videos.

- Assessment methods and evaluation criteria
The learning assessment initially concerns of a written partial test (regarding the procedures required for the identification of two inorganic substances of pharmaceutical use, 2/30 maximum score), at the end of the virtual experimental practices. This score is added to the evaluation of the examination (28/30 maximun score), that is performed remotely by Skype (five open questions, of variable duration depending on the candidate needs), to assess the implementation of the theoretical and experimental knowledges acquired during the course.
Course syllabus
The course (II term) is focused on the qualitative analysis of the elements constituting the inorganic substances included in the Italian Official Pharmacopoeia, allowing their identification. It is composed by two didactic units:
- Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest (20 lectures, 5 CFU, recommended attendance)
- Qualitative Analysis Laboratory (8 experimental practices, 2 CFU, mandatory attendance)
Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest didactic unit program:
- Introduction to the inorganic qualitative analysis.
- Safety guidelines in chemistry laboratory and hazard prevention.
- Basic laboratory procedures.
- Theoretical aspects of the dissolution and precipitation processes.
- Salt hydrolysis: acid/base properties of anions, cations and salts.
- Analysis of anions.
- Analysis of cations.
- Identification methods for unknown inorganic compounds listed in the Italian Pharmacopoeia (F.U.I.) (water-soluble and water-insoluble substances).
- Limit tests: principles reported in F.U.I.
- Color theory: electronic properties-color relationships of ions and molecules.
- Introduction to the pharmaceutical, toxicological and biochemical properties of the inorganic compounds analyzed during the laboratory work.

Qualitative Analysis Laboratory didactic unit program:
- Basic laboratory procedures.
- Salt hydrolysis: acid/base properties of anions, cations and salts.
- Analysis of anions.
- Analysis of cations.
- Identification methods for inorganic compounds listed in the Italian Pharmacopoeia (water-soluble and water-insoluble substances).
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledges concerning General and Inorganic Chemistry, Stoichiometry and Analytical Chemistry (preparatory courses) are required.
Teaching methods
The lectures are offered by PowerPoint presentations concerning the general topics (including some ongoing exercises) and the introduction to the laboratory experiences, to carry out during the individual experimental practices.
Teaching Resources
Slides concerning the lecture topics (course site, Ariel) to deepen through:

Reference texts
- A. Crea, Principi di Chimica Analitica, Ed. Zanichelli.
- A. Araneo, Chimica Analitica Qualitativa, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano.
- G. Charlot, Analisi Chimica Qualitativa, Piccin Editore, Padova.
- G. Svela, Vogel's Qualitative Inorganic Analysis, Edizioni Logman, Harlow.

Consultation texts
- F. Savelli, O. Bruno, Analisi Chimico Farmaceutica, Piccin Editore, Padova.
- Farmacopea Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana.
- Farmacopea Europea.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final grade amounts to the sum of the writing assignment (5 questions, different score, 120 minutes duration, maximum 26/30) and the experimental practices (analysis of four inorganic substances, maximun 4/30) scores.
Inorganic Analysis of Substances having Pharmaceutical Interest
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 5
Lessons: 40 hours
Qualitative Analysis Laboratory
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Single bench laboratory practical: 32 hours