Local Government

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide conceptual tools for the knowledge and analysis of local governments and local policies in contemporary democracies. We analyze the new inter-institutional relationships in multilevel systems, demonstrating the increasing degree of complexity of the decision-making process.The course is structured in two interconnected teaching units.The first one is related to the understanding and analysis, in a comparative perspective, of the territorial powers through the division between center and periphery, taking into consideration the structure of the different levels of government (local, regional, national and supranational) and their relationships, the development of local democracy and the forms - traditional and innovative - of citizen participation. We analyze the transfer of functions from the center to the periphery through political (or devolution) and administrative decentralization, as well as ways to address and resolve collective problems in the territorial area in question, conceiving local government as both an institution and a government activity . The second didactic unit analyzes a new protagonism of the cities. In a context of high economic, social, cultural and political interdependence, it is interesting to note a transformation of both government and city governance, understood as global cities, cities - regions and, in some cases, as a city-state. This means rethinking the functions of cities and intermediate and local bodies, not only aimed at managing local public services in terms of municipal or local welfare, but above all at formulating an international strategy.
Expected learning outcomes
The course aims to provide a thorough and systemic knowledge of the role of local governments, and especially of cities, in a much more dynamic and interdependent context than even in the recent past. It intends to provide students with the tools to participate in territorial marketing projects, to understand the dynamics of the decision-making with a view to multi-level governance, and finally to be able to understand the policy network on a glocal scale.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second trimester
Course syllabus
The course is divided into two parts:

Didactic unit 1

Division of political power between nation-states and local governments in Europe and North America: the division powers (vertical or territorial). Local government as an institution and local government as an activity (or local governance). Local governments as public institutions close to citizens. The municipality as the first area of democracy and political participation. Local governments as producers of essential public goods and services. Public policies as a product of an intense intertwining between different levels of government (from Europe to the municipalities, passing through the State and the regions). The transfer of functions from the centre to the periphery: political decentralization and administrative decentralization (between differentiated autonomy and new centralism: the Italian case in a comparative perspective at the time of Covid-19). How local welfare and the third sector change between new corporate, community and territorial welfare.

Didactic unit 2

- Governance of cities and global cities before and after Covid-19: urban territories as fundamental hubs of political processes, with local, regional, national and international implications. The new protagonism of cities and regions inside and outside national borders. The transformations of government and governance of cities, understood as city-regions and, in some cases, as city-states. The functions of cities and sub-national bodies, no longer aimed solely at the management of local public services in terms of municipal or local welfare, but above all at the formulation of an international strategy.
- Local development: the growing degree of complexity of the decision-making process on a sub-national scale. The governance of local public services (water, electricity, gas, waste collection, etc.) through the so-called multi-utility companies (towards a new relationship between politics and the economy?); participatory processes, governance logic, analysis and impact and process assessments of local public policies.
- Urban centers as subjects of change and as amplifiers of humans' strengths: creativity, entrepreneurship, desire to do. The new morphology of cities during Covid19 between politics and policy: the factors of humankind's weakness and the management of uncertainty.
- Urban@it City Report: the gap between politics and cities.

Program information
During the course some privileged witnesses on the topics covered by the course will be invited. In addition, some exercises will be carried out through the analysis of some national and foreign websites on: indicators of quality of life in cities, universal and international exhibitions, Olympics etc. Concerning the in-depth analysis of these topics, supplementary and substitute readings to the reference texts will be indicated and illustrated by the teacher (preferably in English).
In the last part of the course, students must necessarily present some research projects on themes and topics chosen in agreement with the teacher and related to case studies on local and regional, Italian, foreign and comparative dynamics and processes. On these projects (from which micro-papers will be elaborated or elaborated) there will be a partial evaluation in order to pass the exam.
In particular, during the second teaching unit, with the help of some privileged witnesses, reference will be made to various case studies, taken from local public policies:
a) territorial marketing or area marketing, an organized activity that helps political decision-makers to define strategies to make territories attractive, considered to be composed of tangible and intangible elements: Milan Expo 2015 and Post-Expo; The Milan-Cortina 2026 Winter Olympics;
b) politics and economics: divergences and convergences with regard to the new municipal and regional capitalism between polity, politics and policy. The role of multi-utility companies;
c) cities and the challenge of immigration: the search, in a comparative perspective and in a multilevel logic, of best practices;
d) Milan and the suburbs: universities at the service of the city. How to rethink the places and spaces of the metropolis. Analysis of an ongoing empirical research: Municipality of Milan, Milano City School Project, Milan, 2020; Comune di Milano, Rigenerare la città. Le periferie al centro, Milano 2020; AaVv., Costellazione Milano. Contributi di ricerca per un'esplorazione del campo urbano, Feltrinelli, e-book, 2020;
f) Rethinking cities, their morphology, functions at the time of Covid19: from smart city to smart land?

The exam will take place orally (attending and non-attending students) on all the topics covered in the course. The exam program for NON ATTENDING STUDENTS, except for the above differences, is the same as that for attending students.
Teaching Resources
Didactic material and bibliography

Material (Didactic Unit 1)
Mandatory for all:

- L.BOBBIO, I governi locali nelle democrazie contemporanee, Laterza, Bari-Roma, 2015 (ultima edizione).

At the student's choice, one of the following texts:
- M. CACIAGLI, Regioni d'Europa. Devoluzioni, regionalismi, integrazione europea, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2006;
- V. CESAREO, N. PAVESI (a cura di), Il Welfare responsabile alla prova. Una proposta per la società italiana, Vita e Pensiero, Milano, 2019;
- B. DENTERS & E.R. LAWRENCE (ed.), Comparing Local Governance. Trends and Developments, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK and New York, US, 2005;
- C. DE VINCENTI, R. FINOCCHI GHERSI, A. TARDIOLA (a cura di), La sanità in Italia. Organizzazione, governo, regolazione, mercato, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2011;
- F. GELLI (a cura di), La democrazia locale tra rappresentanza e partecipazione, F.Angeli, Milano, 2005 (cap. I + 5 capitoli a scelta dello studente);
- L. HOOGHE, G. MARKS & A.H. SCHAKEL, The Rise of Regional Authority, Routledge, London, 2010;
- S. KUHLMANN & P. FEDELE, "Local Government Modernisation in Germany, France and Italy from a Comparative Perspective" in H. WOLLMANN & G. MARCOU (ed.), Production and Delivery of Social and Public Services in Cross-country Comparison. Between Government, Governance, and Market, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2010;
- M. MARETTI, Welfare locali. Studio comparativo sulla programmazione dei servizi sociali nelle regioni italiane, F.Angeli, Milano, 2008;
- N. PASINI (a cura di), Confini irregolari. Cittadinanza sanitaria in prospettiva comparata e multilivello, F.Angeli, Milano, 2011;
- L. VANDELLI (a cura di), Il governo delle Regioni: sistemi politici, amministrazioni, autonomie speciali, Il Mulino, Bologna 2013;
- G. VIESTI, Verso la secessione dei ricchi? Autonomie regionali e unità nazionale, Laterza, Roma-Bari, 2019

Material (Didactic Unit 2)

At the student's choice, one of the following texts:
- D. BALDWIN HESS, T. TAMMARU, M. VAN HAM (eds), Housing Estates in Europe. Poverty, Ethnic Segregation and Policy Challenges, The Urban Book Series, Springer Open, The Netherlands, 2018;
- M. CANNATA (a cura di), La città per l'uomo ai tempi del Covid-19, La Nave di Teseo, Milano, 2020;
- L. CIAPETTI, Lo sviluppo locale, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2010;
- G. CITRONI, A. LIPPI, S. PROFETI, Governi privati. Le società partecipate dei comuni strumento e arena del governo locale, Rubbettino Editore, Soveria Mannelli, 2012;
- W.K.D. DAVIES (ed.), Theme Cities: Solutions for Urban Problems, Springer (GeoJournal Library No. 112), London, 2015;
- E. d' ALBERGO, C. LEFEVRE, Le strategie internazionali delle città, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2007;
- G. DEMATTEIS, C. LANZA, Le città del mondo. Una geografia urbana, UTET Università, Torino, 2014;
- G. DEMATTEIS, F. GOVERNA, Territorialità, sviluppo locale, sostenibilità: il modello SLoT, Franco Angeli, Milano, 2005;
- M.T. GALANTI, Sindaci e manager nel capitalismo municipale, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2016;
- E. GLAESER, Il trionfo della città. Come la nostra più grande invenzione ci rende più ricchi e felici, Bompiani, Milano, 2013 (traduzione italiana di E.Glaeser, Triumph of the City. How our Greatest Invention makes us Richer, Smarter, Greener, Healthier and Happier, Penguin Press, New York, 2011);
- R. LODIGIANI (a cura di), Milano 2015. La Città metropolitana: sfide, contraddizioni, attese, Ambrosianeum Fondazione Culturale (Rapporti sulla città), FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2015;
- P. PERULLI, Visioni di città. Le forme del mondo spaziale, Piccola Biblioteca Einaudi, Torino, 2009;
- A.J. SCOTT, Città e regioni nel nuovo capitalismo. L'economia sociale delle metropoli, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2011;
- G. SEMI, Gentrification. Tutte le città come Disneyland?, Il Mulino, Bologna 2015.
- R. SOMMELLA (a cura di), Milano città aperta. Prima, durante e dopo il virus, MF-Milano Finanza, 2020 (anche on line);
- T. TAMMARU, S. MARCINCZAK, M. van HAM, and S. MUSTERD (Eds.), Socio-Economic Segregation in European Capital Cities: East Meets West, Regional Studies Association (Regions and Cities), Routledge, Abingdon, UK, 2016;
- URBAN@it (Centro nazionale di studi per le politiche urbane), Quinto rapporto sulle città. Politiche urbane per le periferie, Il Mulino, Bologna, 2020. In alternativa anche i Rapporti degli anni precedenti;
- S. VICARI HADDOCK, Questioni urbane: caratteri e problemi della città contemporanee, Il Mulino, Bologna 2013.
SPS/04 - POLITICAL SCIENCE - University credits: 6
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Pasini Nicola