Medical Statistics and Applied Physics

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
FIS/07 MED/01
Learning objectives
The general objectives combine the quantitative approach to the data in various subjects, the familiarity with the basic concepts and the applications of Medical Statistics and Physics, especially in the biomedical field.
The student should develop a global attitude towards the application of the methods presented in the course and the critical evaluation of the results, obtained and/or found in the literature.
Emphasis will be given to the development of practical technical skills, together with the scientific background for the evaluation of evidence, based on quantitative biostatistics.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to:
- Assign units and estimate the order of magnitude of various physical quantities of biomedical interest
- Observe and measure physical phenomena and develop models to describe them, through a basic application of scientific method
- Collect and organize data about a sample of patients
- Elaborate a set of clinical data through basic techniques of descriptive and inferential statistics
- Understand the features of the design of observational and experimental clinical studies
- Understand clinical literature about diagnostic tests
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

The lessons will be perfomed on-line through the Microsoft teams platform and they will be available both (sychronous and asychronous) at the same time based on the first trimester timetable. They will be registred and available on the Microsoft teams platform.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have basic knowledge of algebra and elements of geometry
Assessment methods and Criteria
written and oral exam
Applied physics
Course syllabus
Preliminary tools
∙ Fundamental and derived quantities, International System
∙ Multiples and submultiples, scientific notation and significant figures
∙ Estimates of orders of magnitude
∙ Scalar and vector quantities
∙ Vector operations
∙ Uniform straigth motion, uniformly accelerated motion
∙ Principles of dynamics
∙ Forces: gravitational, weight, constraint reaction, friction, elastic
∙ Motion on an inclined plane
∙ Work of a force
∙ Kinetic energy theorem
∙ Conservative forces, potential energy
∙ Conservation of mechanical energy
∙ Dissipative forces
∙ Types of deformation
∙ Stress-strain curves, Young modulus
∙ States of matter
∙ Pressure
∙ Relative pressure
∙ Tonometer and measurement of ocular pressure
∙ Stevin's law
∙ Archimedes force
∙ Flow rate
∙ Bernoulli's theorem
∙ Viscosity
Elettromagnetism and optics
∙ Electric charge
∙ Coulomb's force and electric field
∙ Electric potential
∙ Conducting and insulating materials
∙ Electric current
∙ Electric resistance
∙ Joule effect
∙ Absolute temperature
∙ Latent and specific heat
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with blackboard and projector (slides).
Slides of the lectures and exercises are available on Ariel.
Teaching Resources
Suggested books are for reference only. The student should use lecture notes and can freely choose on which books to study the discussed topics.
For some topics, slides and additional materials will be provided via Ariel.

- Giambattista "College physics" McGraw-Hill
- McKay "Physics for the Life Sciences"
(vol I:… ; vol II:
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
- studies to estimate prevalence and incidence
- risk factor studies (case-control and cohort)
- experimental studies for the evaluation of a treatment (observational, experimental (phase I, II, III)
- notes on the PubMed database
- Measurement scales of variables
- Graphical representations (bar charts, pie charts, histograms, box plots)
- Numerical synthesis measurements (depending on the measurement scale and the shape of the distribution) mean, median, mode, interquartile range, standard deviation
Mathematical characteristics of the distribution
Interpretation of the parameters
The standardized Gaussian
Use of tables to calculate probability
- Sensitivity, specificity
- Likelihood Ratio (positive and negative)
- Predictive values (positive and negative)
- Sample distributions of means and proportions
- central limit theorem
- confidence interval for means and proportions
- the use of Student's t distribution
- hypothesis tests on means and proportions
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons followed by development and discussion of practical applications of the statistical methods covered by the lesson
Teaching Resources
Copy of the slides showed in the course of the lessons
Consultation text:
· Title: Biostatistics
· Authors: Marcello Pagano, Kimberlee Gauvreau
· Publisher: Idelson-Gnocchi
Statistics for clinical research
Course syllabus
Statistics and Scientific Method: statistics for measurement: Measurement errors; Variability sources: biological and analytical variability; Accuracy and precision; Laboratory measurements and statistical models
Study of the association between risk factors and disease.
Statistical association and causality of effects.
Observation and experimental studies
Epidemiology / clinical study plans: cohort and case-control studies.
Confusion and random assignment to treatments.
Prevalence and incidence measures and their estimation.
Relative risk and odds ratio between exposed and not exposed to risk factors.
The study of the association between quantitative variables
Association and addiction
Calibration of measurement methods and regression
Experimental plan and analysis of variance
Concordance between measurement methods.
Application of the statistical test for the comparison between groups with different treatment.
Significance and power of the statistical test
Comparison between statistical significance and clinical relevance.
Study of the effectiveness of a preventive / therapeutic intervention.
The ethical basis of clinical / epidemiological research.
Phase I, II and III clinical trials.
Target population and inclusion criteria.
Treatment effectiveness measures.
Statistical interaction and response to treatment
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons followed by the discussion of texts with practical applications of the epidemiological/statistical methods covered by the lesson
Teaching Resources
Copy of the slides showed in the course of the lessons
Consultation text:
· Title: Biostatistics
· Authors: Marcello Pagano, Kimberlee Gauvreau
· Publisher: Idelson-Gnocchi
Applied physics
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Zanchetta Giuliano
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Biganzoli Elia
Statistics for clinical research
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Boracchi Patrizia