Morphological Sciences (Human anatomy and histology)

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
BIO/16 BIO/17
Learning objectives
The course describes the morphological aspects of tissues and organs of the human body in relation to their systematic microscopic and macroscopic organization, with particular deepening of the structures of the oral cavity and the masticatory apparatus.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the integrated course the student has understood the organization of the human body in its macroscopic and microscopic aspects and possess a deep knowledge of the organs and structures of the masticatory apparatus.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

The lectures on anatomy and histology will be delivered online mainly in synchronous mode using the Microsoft Teams platform and partly in asynchronous mode in the form of audio lessons, according to the published calendar and the indications given by the University. The synchronous lessons will be recorded and made available together with the audio lessons on the Ariel teaching website.
There will be some macroscopic anatomy exercises with anatomical models in classroom, dividing the students into groups according to the indications provided in class by the teacher and reported on the Ariel website of the course. The exercises will be held in a classroom of the Institute of Anatomy located in via L. Mangiagalli 31.
Information on the organization of lessons and exercises and any other information on the didactic activities will be available on the ARIEL website of the course; it is requested to consult it regularly. Based on the evolution of the epidemic and in compliance with the relevant regulations, it will be possible to modify the modalities of the activities planned in the classroom, informing the students through Ariel notice-board.
The teaching program and reference material will not be modified.
Learning will be verified through a written multiple-choice test on the anatomy and general histology part and an oral test on the anatomy and histology of the stomatognathic system in classroom or online via Teams, Zoom or Skype in accordance with the guidelines given by the Academic Institution and according to the evolution of the epidemic.
Prerequisites for admission
General knowledge of chemistry and biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The 30th grade generated by the quiz can be confirmed, raised or lowered from the final oral exam without constraints.
There are no on-going tests, but only 8 exam sessions per academic year.
The results of the written test will be communicated to the students through a printed document hanging on the board of the Institute located in via Mangiagalli 31 and via email to the student representatives.
Human anatomy
Course syllabus
I- Human anatomy
Body scheme; anatomical terminology; spaces, cavities and body regions; organs, systems, apparata.
General information on the skin and skin appendages.
General information on bones, joints, muscles; axial and appendicular skeleton; joints of the human body; head, trunk and limb muscles.
Central nervous system: spinal cord; encephalon: brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon; meninges; cerebrospinal fluid; main pathways.
Peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves, spinal nerves and plexuses: content and innervation territory; sympathetic nervous system: general organization.
Special sense organs:
taste, olfactory, visual, auditory and vestibular apparatus: general organization.
Pituitary gland; epiphysis; thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal gland; endocrine pancreas; neuroendocrine system.
Organization of the cardiovascular system; heart; main arterial vessels and distribution; main veins and drainage; general information on the lymphatic circulatory system.
Bone marrow; thyme; tonsils; lymph nodes; spleen.
pharynx; esophagus; stomach; small and large intestine; liver and biliary tract; pancreas; peritoneum.
Airways: nose and sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles; lungs; pleura.
Kidneys; urinary tract: calyxes, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra.
Testes; spermatic pathways: epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct; glands attached to the spermatic tract: seminal vesicles, prostate.
Ovarian; genital tract: uterine tube, uterus, vagina.

II. Anatomy of the stomatognathic apparatus
- Morphology and architecture of the skull (bones, endo- and exocranial fossae)
- Masticatory muscles
- Temporo-mandibular joint
- Morphology and limits of the oral cavity
- Architecture and structure of the tongue
- Structure of the major and minor salivary glands
- Morphology of teeth and dental arches (macro and microscopic aspects)
- Organogenesis of the tooth
- Morpho-functional aspects of the periodontium
- Vascularization and innervation of the oral cavity
Teaching methods
The course is mainly organized in lectures alternated with some practical exercises of macroscopic anatomy using plastic models of different sizes and shapes, extracted teeth and anatomical tables illustrating sections of the human body in the various projections to guide work in small groups.
Teaching Resources
Anatomia generale/Human Anatomy:
- Ambrosi G. et al. Anatomia dell'uomo. 2006, Edi.Ermes, Milano.
- Martini F.H. et al. Anatomia umana. 2012, EdiSES, Napoli.
- Tillman B. Atlante di anatomia - Odontoiatria e Medicina. 1997, RC Edizioni Scientifiche, Milano.

Anatomia dell'apparato stomatognatico/Anatomy of the stomatognatic apparatus:
- Dellavia C. Compendio di Anatomia Oro-facciale per l'attività clinica odontostomatologica. 2016. EdiSES, Napoli.
- Dellavia C, Gagliano N, Orlando F. I colori e le forme della ricerca in odontoiatria. Atlante di istologia orale. 2001, Quintessenza Edizioni s.r.l., Rho (Mi).
Course syllabus
EUKARYOTIC CELL: Organization and Structure
EPITHELIAL TISSUES: lining epithelium and glandular epithelium
CONNECTIVE TISSUES: connective tissue proper; adipose tissue; cartilage; bone tissue; blood
MUSCLE TISSUE: skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue.
NERVOUS TISSUE: Neurons and glial cells. Nerve fibers. Transmission of nerve impulse
Teaching methods
Classroom teaching and exercise through the projection and discussion of images depicting histological sections.
Teaching Resources
· Adamo S, Comoglio P, Molinaro M, Siracusa G, Stefanini M, Ziparo E. - ISTOLOGIA (per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie) - Piccin
· Calligaro A, Colombo R, De Pol A, et al. - CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE - edi-ermes
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Paino Francesca
Human anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 60 hours