Describe the organization of the human body in its macroscopic and microscopic aspects, with particular deepening of the organs and structures that constitute the lower limb.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the integrated course the student has understood the organization of the human body in its macroscopic and microscopic aspects and possess a deep knowledge of the organs and structures of the locomotor apparatus and specifically of the lower limb.
The exam consists of a written test of general anatomy and histology consisting in 40 multiple choice questions and an oral assessment on the histological aspects which takes place in the following days according to the alphabetical order and extraction at fate of the beginning letter. Passing the written test allows access to the oral exam. The 30th grade generated by the quiz can be confirmed, raised or lowered from the final oral exam without constraints. There are no on-going tests. The results of the written test will be communicated to the students through a printed document hanging on the board of the Institute located in via Mangiagalli 31 and via email to the student representatives.
CONSTRUCTIVE PRINCIPLES OF THE HUMAN BODY Body scheme; anatomical terminology; spaces, cavities and body regions; organs, systems, apparata. TEGUMENTARY APPARATUS General information on the skin and skin appendages. LOCOMOTOR APPARATUS General information on bones, joints, muscles; axial and appendicular skeleton; joints of the human body; head, trunk and limb muscles, in particular of the lower limb structures. NERVOUS APPARATUS Central nervous system: spinal cord; encephalon: brainstem, cerebellum, diencephalon, telencephalon; meninges; cerebrospinal fluid; main pathways. Peripheral nervous system: cranial nerves, spinal nerves and plexuses: content and innervation territory; sympathetic nervous system: general organization. Special sense organs: taste, olfactory, visual, auditory and vestibular apparatus: general organization. ENDOCRINE APPARATUS Pituitary gland; epiphysis; thyroid; parathyroid; adrenal gland; endocrine pancreas; neuroendocrine system. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Organization of the cardiovascular system; heart; main arterial vessels and distribution; main veins and drainage; general information on the lymphatic circulatory system. Bone marrow; thyme; tonsils; lymph nodes; spleen. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM pharynx; esophagus; stomach; small and large intestine; liver and biliary tract; pancreas; peritoneum. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Airways: nose and sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and bronchioles; lungs; pleura. URINARY SYSTEM Kidneys; urinary tract: calyxes, renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, urethra. MALE GENITAL APPARATUS Testes; spermatic pathways: epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory duct; glands attached to the spermatic tract: seminal vesicles, prostate. FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM Ovarian; genital tract: uterine tube, uterus, vagina.
The course is mainly organized in lectures alternated with some practical exercises of macroscopic anatomy using plastic models of different sizes and shapes, and anatomical tables illustrating sections of the human body in the various projections to guide work in small groups.
Anatomia generale/Human Anatomy: Ambrosi G. et al. Anatomia dell'uomo. 2006, Edi.Ermes, Milano. - Martini FH et al. Anatomia umana. 2012, EdiSES, Napoli. - Moore KL, Dalley AF. Anatomia Umana. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana (IV ed.), Milano 2001. - Schwegler JS. Anatomia e fisiologia dell'uomo. Edi-Ermes (II ed.), Milano 1999. - Thibodeau GA, Patton KT. Anatomia & Fisiologia - Casa Editrice Ambrosiana - 1995 - Seeley RR, Stephens TD, Tate P. Anatomia e cenni di istologia e fisiologia. Casa Editrice Idelson-Gnocchi (II ed.), Napoli 2005. Atlas: - Anastasi e Tacchetti (eds), Anatomia Umana - Atlante (vol. 1 e 2), EdiErmes - Gilroy et al. Atlante di Anatomia. Prometheus Università, UTET. - Kopf-Maier. Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Edi.Ermes. - Netter, Atlante di Anatomia Umana, Elsevier.
EUKARYOTIC CELL: Organization and Structure EPITHELIAL TISSUES: lining epithelium and glandular epithelium CONNECTIVE TISSUES: connective tissue proper; adipose tissue; cartilage; bone tissue; blood MUSCLE TISSUE: skeletal muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue. NERVOUS TISSUE: Neurons and glial cells. Nerve fibers. Transmission of nerve impulse TISSUE REPAIR AND STEM CELLS
Classroom teaching and exercise through the projection and discussion of images depicting histological sections. Practical activities using an optical microscope to observe histological sections.
· Adamo S, Comoglio P, Molinaro M, Siracusa G, Stefanini M, Ziparo E. - ISTOLOGIA (per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie) - Piccin · Calligaro A, Colombo R, De Pol A, et al. - CITOLOGIA E ISTOLOGIA FUNZIONALE - edi-ermes