Pediatric sciences 2

A.Y. 2020/2021
5
Max ECTS
75
Overall hours
SSD
MED/38 MED/45
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
- To acquire an adequate knowledge of the main physical diseases of the developmental age in the context of a unitary and global vision of human pathology and their therapeutic approach;
- To Acquire the knowledge and methods to manage nursing care, from data collection to the evaluation of evidence based actions and the result, to the child with family involvement, which presents manifestations and signs, biophysiological, physiopathological, psychological and socio-cultural related to disease states with greater incidence and prevalence in the territory;
- To Know and to apply the tools for assessing the clinical conditions of the child diversified by age group (eg pain);
- To Know and To apply the methods of use of therapeutic and diagnostic procedures, according to planned interventions and actions based on standards and scientific evidence;
- To Acquire the ability to apply data collection methods for the identification of nursing care needs related to acute and chronic illnesses of the child's medical relevance and to plan nursing care, documenting it according to the theoretical reference model and evaluating expected actions and result
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding:
- general and clinical nursing issues for the understanding of pediatric nursing's fields of intervention, clinical method leading to effective clinical approach intervention techniques and evidence supporting the decision making and the delivery of the pediatric nursing care;

Ability to apply knowledge and understanding:
- integrate the knowledge and skills stemming from the nursing discipline, from biomedical, psychological, socio-cultural and humanistic features to recognize the care needs of the newborn, children , adolescents and the family and provide appropriate, effective and evidence-based pediatric nursing care;
- apply the nursing care on the basis of the reference disciplinary theoretical models to assess and diagnose health status and care needs in their physical, psychological and socio-cultural dimensions, plan goals, implement and evaluate the care provided and outcomes achieved;
- conduct a complete and systematic evaluation of data relating to the care needs of the newborn, children , adolescents to facilitate growth, development and adaptation in health promotion, maintenance and recovery;
- analyze and accurately interpret the data collected through clinical reasoning;
- interpret and apply the results of research to nursing practice and link research paths
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

In case of suspension of didactic activities in attendance there the exams will be carried out orally on the Microsoft Teams platform
Prerequisites for admission
To obtain enrollment in the second year, the student must have passed at least three exams related to teaching courses, of which: - Human anatomy and physiology, Fundamentals of maternal and child care. Passing the annual internship exam is a necessary and mandatory condition to obtain registration for the following year
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written and oral exam. The written exam consists of a test with (10 questions for each module) and multiple choice answers (only one correct answer). It is considered passed if all the modules are sufficient (6 correct answers out of 10) Time is 60 minutes. In the oral test the main criteria to be considered in the assessment of the answer are the completeness and correctness of the contents, the ability to link knowledge and clarity of exposition
General and subspecialty paediatrics
Course syllabus
INFECTIONS: GENERAL AND PREVENTION
The role of infectious pathology in pediatrics. The transmission of viral and bacterial infections. The blood problem. The methods of infection prevention in hospital wards. Insulation, positive pressure and negative pressure rooms, the most appropriate methods for washing hands and the most suitable solutions, the use of lab coats, the regulation of the entry of relatives and visitors.
The complaint of infectious disease. Active prophylaxis and passive prophylaxis. Mandatory vaccines and those recommended for pediatric subjects. The logic of vaccinations for hospital staff. The use of immunoglobulins.
ASSISTANCE ASPECTS OF SOME INFECTIONS
Gastroenteritis. The determination of the etiology and its importance for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. The methods for assessing the severity of the individual case. The problem of oral rehydration and the choice of cases to which intravenous rehydration is reserved. Identification of cases to which antibiotic therapy is administered.
Bronchiolitis.
Epidemiology and clinical symptomatology. The evaluation of gravity. The administration of oxygen and the choice of its concentration. The problem of antibiotic and steroid therapy. The role of aerosols.
Urinary tract infections.
General symptomatology at different ages. Etiology and pathogenesis. The diagnostic assessment methods. The problem of urine collection in a sterile way. When and how to schedule ultrasound, scintigraphic and traditional radiology exams. The need for checks. The risk of remote damage.
HIV infection
Fetal and horizontal maternal transmission. The identification of the infected person. The development of disease. The methods of assessing its evolution and gravity. Current therapeutic possibilities.
MAIN RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS
Upper airway infections. Importance of nasal, nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs for aetiological diagnosis and therapeutic setting. Execution methods.
External otitis. Principles of topical therapy and methods of execution.
Acute otitis media and its complications. Otoscopy as a diagnostic tool.
Nasal obstruction and its complications. Nasal diagnostics: anterior rhinoscopy, rhinomanometry and nasal cytology.
Lower airway infections. Pneumonia. Clinical symptomatology and assistance needs.
The child with infectious asthma. Etiological classification, assessment of severity, need for oxygen support or assisted ventilation, need and type of drug therapy. Respiratory function test. Mode of use of the aerosol.
Allergic asthma: classification of the individual case by pathogenesis and severity. Execution of allergological tests. The approach to emergency. Chronic therapy and the need for periodic checks.
The child with recurrent respiratory infections. Distinction of gravity of individual cases. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach.
Teaching methods
frontal presentations and interactive activities
Teaching Resources
Principi N, Rubino A, Vierucci A. Pediatria generale e specialistica. Casa editrice Ambrosiana. 2012
Piano nazionale prevenzione vaccinale 2017-2019
Linea guida otite media acuta 2010 (www.sipps.it/pdf/lineeguida/otite.pdf‎)
Linea guida faringotonsillite 2012 (www.sioechcf.it/allegati/lineeguida/LG_faringotonsillite.pdf)
Radzik D. Uso dei distanziatori (scaricaribile da www.siaip.it)
Progetto ARIA 2015 (www.progetto-aria.it)
Progetto linea guida asma 2015 (www.ginasma.it)
Infezioni vie urinarie: consensus italiana 2009
The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Bradley JS et al. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53:e25-76.
Do We Know When, What and For How Long to Treat with Antibiotic Therapy for Pediatric Community-acquired Pneumonia? Esposito S et al. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2012; 31: e78-85.
Nursing sciences: general, clinical and paediatric
Course syllabus
NURSING NEEDS OF THE CHILD WITH ONCOLOGIC DISEASE
· acquire the ability to carry out a targeted anamnestic evaluation (data collection)
· recognize the main events of the BAIs that can be linked to the main ones
oncological pathologies and defining the related assistance interventions according to best practices
· rating scales: PEDIATRIC NAUSEA ASSESSMENT TOOL, MUCOSITE
· The diagnostic and therapeutic process: how to help the child and parents
· Isolation and management / education methods of parents and visitors
· Preparation and management of chemotherapy drugs in the pediatric field
· Radiation therapy
· Surgery
· Supportive therapies (chronic pain management)
· Bone marrow aspirate and bone biopsy

NURSING NEEDS OF THE CHILD WITH NEUROLOGICAL ALTERATIONS
· acquire the ability to carry out a targeted anamnestic evaluation (data collection)
· recognize the main events of the BAIs that can be linked to the main ones
neurological pathologies (convulsions - meningitis) and define the relative care interventions according to best practices

NURSING NEEDS OF THE CHILD WITH ALTERNATIONS TO THE KIDNEY
Kidney anatomy and physiology - Definition of kidney failure - Main diseases that lead to kidney failure in children - Diagnostics: urinalysis; renal biopsy (nursing) - Nursing needs of children with Mitrofanoff valve
SUBSTITUTE THERAPY
Hemodialysis:
- Main issues
- Vascular access
- Surveillance during dialysis sessions
- Therapeutic education
- Peritoneal dialysis:
- Main issues
- Tenckoff catheter and nursing needs of child in peritoneal dialysis
- Training and therapeutic education of the caregiver
Kidney transplantation:
- Transplant preparation
- Nursing after surgery
- Follow-up and therapeutic education
- Psychological aspects and quality of life

Introduction to Pediatric Palliative Care and Pain Management
Symptoms and care needs of children/adolescents with oncological or non-oncological disease
Bioethical discussion of eligible patients for a PPC program
Thaking charge a patient with palliative care needs
Communication in a pediatric palliative care program

NURSING NEEDS OF THE CHILD WITH ANOMALIES/DISEASES OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT
· Acquire the ability to carry out a tailored/targeted history (data collection)
· Recognize the main nursing needs that can be linked to the main diseases of the respiratory tract and define the related care interventions according to best practices rating scales: The Pediatric Assessment Triangle
clinical case discussion

NURSING NEEDS OF THE CHILD WITH ANOMALIES/DISEASES OF THE GASTROENTERIC TRACT
· Acquire the ability to carry out a tailored/targeted history (data collection)
· Recognize the main nursing needs that can be linked to diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and define the related care interventions according to best practices
assessment scales: Diarrhea The Bristol Stool Scale or Bristol Stool Chart or Stool Scale of Bristol
clinical case discussion

PEDIATRIC PROCEDURES
Aspiration of the nasopharynx
Oxygen therapy administration
Apnea monitoring
Respiratory exercises
pH measurement
Enteral nutrition
Lumbar puncture
Venous sampling
Positioning of peripheral venous catheter
Blood culture

Nursing care in Child Neuropsychiatry
1. The child and the disease
· a biopsychosocial vision of health and disease
· because it is important to explain the disease to the child
· understanding of the disease in children
· explain the disease to children
2. The child and hospitalization
· neurobiology of trauma
· post traumatic stress disorders
· hospitalization
· care of the relationship
3. The person with disabilities, terminology, history
4. Reference theories and nursing role
· the relationship of help and interpersonal relationships
· the nursing role in a rehabilitative and mental health context
· nursing of the disabled person in the hospital and pain assessment
· patients with communication vulnerabilities in the hospital context and signs of Augmentative Communication
5. The family, service networks and legal protection
6. The child with intellectual disability
· intellectual disability
· intervention strategies
7. The child with autism spectrum disorder
· autism spectrum disorder
· intervention strategies
8. The child with neuromuscular disease: SMA
· the child with spinal muscular atrophy
· family and domiciliation
· communication of the child with SMA 1
9. The child with Infant Cerebral Palsy
· the child with PCI
· principles of nursing care
· communication of the child with PCI
10. Migration and health
· the migrant and migration
· migratory trauma and resilience
· prevention: early observation of risk signals
11. Disability and violence
· glossary
· international and national surveys
· alarm bells
· risk factors: disability
12. Anxiety disorders
· definitions and classification
· separation anxiety disorder
· selective mutism
Teaching methods
frontal presentation and practical and interactive activities
Teaching Resources
P. Badon, S. Cesaro, Assistenza infermieristica in pediatria, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano 2015
P. Barelli, E. Spagnolli, Nursing di salute mentale, Carocci Faber, Roma 2013
T. Baubet, Moro M. R., Psicopatologia transculturale, Koinè, Roma 2010
M. Cannao, Argomenti di neuropsichiatria infantile per le professioni d'aiuto, Franco Angeli, Milano 2011
N.R. Finnie, Il bambino spastico, La nuova Italia, Firenze 1981
F. Fortuna, La disabilità, Carocci Faber, Roma 2003
A. Guareschi Cazzullo, C. Lenti, L.Musetti, M.C. Musetti, Neurologia e psichiatria dello sviluppo, McGraw-Hill, Milano 1998
C. Mastella, G. Ottonello, SMA 1 Abita con noi, Print Lab, Milano 2009
D. Valente, a cura di, Fondamenti di riabilitazione in età evolutiva, Carocci Faber, Roma 2009S. Vicari
A. Villani, Psichiatria pratica dell'età evolutiva, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma 2012
M. Cantarelli Il modello delle prestazione infermieristiche Casa editrice Elsevier- Masson; 2003
Pierluigi Badon - Alessandra Zampieron Procedure infermieristiche in Pediatria Casa editrice Ambrosiana, 2010
Revisioni sistematiche della Rivista Best Practice: InFad, quesiti clinico-assitenziali (emocoltura, gestione del catetere venoso periferico; prelievo venoso; nutrizione enterale)CDC Atlanta
Amery J. A really pratical handbook of children's palliative care for doctor and nurses. 2016
Wolfe J, Jones BL, Kreicbergs U, Jankovic M. Palliative Care in Pediatric Oncology. 2018.
General and subspecialty paediatrics
MED/38 - PAEDIATRICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 15 hours
Nursing sciences: general, clinical and paediatric
MED/45 - NURSING - University credits: 4
Lessons: 60 hours