Introduction and definitions. The phases of the research. Pharmacovigilance Introduction to pharmacoeconomics.
Biological membrane crossing, Routes of administration, absorption and bioavailability of active principles. First-pass effect. Absorption kinetics. Transporters and drug absorption: P-gl and MRPs. Factors affection drug absorption.
Drug distribution and Kp. Apparent distribution volume. Plasma protein binding. Factors affecting drug distribution.
Drug metabolism. Inhibition and induction of drug metabolic enzymes. Enterohepatic recirculation. Factors affecting drug metabolism and variability in the response to drugs.
Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics: polymorphisms affecting drug metabolism and activity.
Drug elimination. Drug renal excretion. Tubular secretion and reabsorption. Renal clearance. Transporters and other factors affecting drug elimination.
Plasmatic drug concentration: pharmacokinetics. Systemic clearance. Plasmatic half-life. Clearance, plasmatic half-life, elimination rate constant and distribution volume. Single and multiple dosing. Steady state plasmatic concentration. Therapeutic window and therapeutic ratio. Saturation kinetics. Therapeutic regimen corrections. Individual variations in response to drugs and drug interactions.
Neurotransmitters, hormones and receptors. Drug-receptor interactions. Definition of intrinsic activity, agonism, inverse agonism, antagonism, potency, efficacy.
Proteins as drug targets. Enzymes, Transporters, Receptors. Channel receptors, G-protein-coupled receptors, enzymatic activity-coupled receptors. Enzyme inhibition. Voltage-gated channels. ATP-dependent pumps and exchangers.
Transporters and their role in drug absorption and elimination. Examples of drugs affecting transporters activity.
Ligand activated channels. Nicotinic and GABA receptors.
Tyrosin kinase receptors and signal transduction.
Seven transmembrane domains receptors and major transduction mechanisms (heteromeric G-proteins, adenylyl-cyclase, phospholipases C and D, small G-proteins).
Nuclear receptors and regulation of gene transcription. Mechanism of action of glucocorticoids.
Occupation theory of receptors. Dose-response curves, EC50 and Kd. Drug potency and efficacy. Reversible and irreversible antagonists. Dose-Ratio. Partial agonists. Reserve of receptors. Inverse agonists.
Protein phosphorylation and control of biological functions. Kinases and phosphatases. Intracellular calcium-ion concentrations. Ca-channels, pumps and transporters. Ca-binding proteins.
Definition of natural drugs, variability of active principles, secondary metabolism and its physiological function, balsamic time, preservation of vegetable and animal drugs,
Quality control, standardization. Elements of chemical-physical analysis.
Powders, extracts, tinctures and essences.
Classification of vegetable drugs. Alkaloids.
Autonomic nervous system and somatic nervous system. Anatomical and functional arrangement of the autonomic nervous system. Actions mediated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
Catecholaminergic transmission: organization, biochemistry and function of the synapse, adrenaline and noradrenaline, alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, agonists and antagonists. Introduction to dopaminergic transmission. Dopaminergic receptors. Vegetable drugs active on the catecholaminergic transmission (Ephedra sinica, Erythroxylum coca, Catha edulis, Yohimbe).
Cholinergic transmission: organization, biochemistry and function of the cholinergic synapse, nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, agonists and antagonists, acetylcholin-esterase inhibitors. Neuromuscular junction blockers and curare. Vegetable drugs active on the cholinergic transmission (Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium, Hyosciamus niger, Pilocarpus jaborandi, Physostigma venenosum, Nicotiana tabacum, Areca cathecu, Lobelia inflata, Hemlock)
Elements of neuropeptidergic transmission. Opioid neuropeptides and their receptors. Papaver somniferum. Substance P. Capsicum and capsaicin.
Elements of lipidergic transmission. Endocannabinoids. Cannabis sativa.
Antitumor drugs (Vinca spp, Taxus spp, Podophyllum peltatum, Camptotheca acuminata). Colchicum.
Xanthine-based drugs: Coffea spp., Thea spp, Theobroma cacao, Cola acuminata.
Chinolinic-based drugs (Chinchona). Nux vomica. Ipecac.
Inflammation and autacoids. Nitric oxide. Reactive oxygen species (ROS): formation and elimination. Mechanisms of ROS-induced damage. Antioxidant drugs: polyphenols-based drugs (Artichoke, Java tea, Sweet clover, Wild celery, Kella, Milk Thistle, Citrus spp, Propolis, Passiflora incarnata, Achillea, Equisetum, Echinacea spp, Blueberry, tannins, Hamamelis virginiana, Krameria); fluroglucinols-based drugs (Hops, St. John's-wort).
Introduction to serotoninergic transmission. Serotoninergic receptors. Vegetable drugs active on the serotoninergic transmission (Claviceps purpurea, Psilocybe mexicana, Lophophora williamsii, Mimosa hostilis).
Lipidic autacoids: arachionic acid metabolites and PAF. Vegetable drugs affecting lipidic autacoids (Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ginkgo biloba).
Glycosides-based drugs: anthraquinone, cyanogenic, sulphated, saponin, coumarin and digitalic glycosides (Aloe spp, Rhamnus spp, Cassia spp, Rheum spp, Common laurel, Prunus spp, Black mustard, Garlic, Mead wort, Salix alba, Bearberry, Horse-chestnut, Milkwort, Butcher's broom, common Ivy, Primrose, Panax ginseng, Centella asiatica, Common Marigold, Eleutherococcum, Digitalis spp, Strophantus spp, Urginea maritima, Nerium oleander, Lily of the valley, Adonis vernalis)
Lipid-based drugs: oils (coconut oil, almond oil, castor oil, olive oil, peanut oil, fish oil) and waxes (lanolin). Pharmacological activities of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Carbohydrate-based drugs (honey, manna ash, cyclodextrin, starch, gum arabic, tragacanth, karaya e guar, Althea officinalis, Malva silvestris, Linum usitatissimum, dextran).
Terpenes-based drugs. Essential Oils (Lavender, Oreganon, Mint, Eucalyptus, Niaouli, Grand Wormwood, Turmeric, Lemon balm, Ginger, Chamomile, Feverfew, Valeriana officinalis, Black Horehound, Rosemary, Thyme, Hawthorn, Sage). Oleoresins (Myrrh, Turpentine). Balms.
Prerequisites for admission
Subjects taught in preparatory courses are mandatory.