Respiratory training and functional postures for technical sports skills

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course explores, analyzes, and practices respiratory movement and related postures; the role of breathing and posture in learning motor skills and physical activity in general.
Expected learning outcomes
Students will acquire the ability to promote correct respiratory and postural dynamics that improve adaptation to the complexity of sports skills and situations.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
If the emergency phase does not allow the provision of face-to-face teaching style adoption, the lessons will be held in a synchronous mode through the on-line platform Microsoft Teams and they will follow the same timetable as previously assigned.
The didactic material (slides showed during lessons) will be available on Ariel platform. The course program and the didactic material will not change.
The exam will be held in oral form and will be based on three questions regarding the topics covered during the course, using the on line platform Microsoft Teams or, if the pandemic rules will allow, the exam will be in presence in a practical form.
The exam will aim to verify student's knowledge and comprehension abilities. It will be also verified the language competency and the exposure skills.
Course syllabus
·Respiratory dynamics: diaphragmatic and thoracic movement and mixed breathing
·Slow, deep breathing according to the Buteyko technique: controlled pausing and exercises
·Five basic exercises for respiratory activation
·Regression and progression of exercises in the above-mentioned techniques
·Personalization of routine reset flow according to individual needs during the course
·Elements of coordination: head movement, rolling, rocking, crawling, crosscrawling
·Basic movements with targeted breathing: Turkish get-up, squat, press, pull up, dead lift, push-up, plank in different positions
·Breathing and trunk stability
·Correct posture and functioning of sports technique
·Overview of functional anatomy of the pelvic girdle, scapulohumeral muscles, spinal column, head, upper and lower limbs according to the principles of F.M. Alexander and F. Mezieres
·Breathing and posture: common tests and functional evaluation
Prerequisites for admission
No previous knowledge necessary
Teaching methods
Practical exercises
Teaching Resources
Bond M. - Equilibrare la postura - Editore Feltrinelli, 2017
Gokhale E. - 8 passi per liberarsi dal mal di schiena ‐ Red edizioni, 2014
Le Boulch J. - Lo Sport nella Scuola; Psicocinetica e apprendimento motorio - Armando Editore, 2009
Ongaro L. - 5 esercizi respiratori secondo S. Wilfart - Appunti interni al Corso
Ferraro F. - Attacco all'Asma e non solo (Metodo Prof. Buteyko) - Macro Edizioni, 2015
McKeown P. - Oxygen Il Potere del Respiro ‐ Sperling & Kupfer, 2017
Alberti G. - Rivalutazione della ginnastica respiratoria a scuola - FrancoAngeli editore, 2016
Chaitow L, Gilbert C, Morrison D - Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders - Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014
Calais‐Germain B. - Respiration anatomie, geste respiratoire ‐ Editions desIris, 2005
Robert Macdonald e Caro Ness - I segreti della Tecnica Alexander - Logos, 2007
Middendorf I. - L'esperienza del respiro - Astrolabio editore, 2005

Additional references:

Cazzola D, Alberti G, Ongaro L, Minetti AE. The vertical excursion of the body visceral mass during vertical jumps is affected by specific respiratory maneuver. Hum Mov Sci. 2014 Feb;33:369-80.
Cavaggioni L., Ongaro L., Zannin E., Iaia FM., Alberti G.: Effects of different core exercises on respiratory parameters and abdominal strength. Journal of Physical Therapy Science. Volume 27 (10): 3249-53. October 2015.
Frank C, Kobesova A, Kolar P. Dynamic neuromuscular stabilization & sports rehabilitation. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2013; 8, 62-73.
Kolar P , Sulc J, Kyncl M, Sanda J, Neuwirth J, Bokarius AV, et al. Stabilizing function of the diaphragm: dynamic MRI and synchronized spirometric assessment. J. Appl. Physiol. 2010; 109, 1064-1071.
Kolar P, Sulc J, Kyncl M, Sanda J, Cakrt O, Andel R, Kumagai K, Kobesova A. Postural function of the diaphragm in persons with and without chronic low back pain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012 Apr;42(4):352-62
Kobesova A, Kolar P. Developmental kinesiology: three levels of motor control in the assessment and treatment of the motor system. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2014 Jan;18(1):23-33
Wang S, McGill SM. Links between the mechanics of ventilation and spine stability. J Appl Biomech. 2008 May;24(2):166-74.
Liebenson C. A modern approach to abdominal training-Part III: putting it together. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2008 Jan;12(1):31-6
McGill SM, Sharratt MT, Seguin JP. Loads on spinal tissues during simultaneous lifting and ventilatory challenge. Ergonomics. 1995 Sep;38(9):1772-92.

McGill SM, Karpowicz A. Exercises for spine stabilization: motion/motor patterns, stability progressions, and clinical technique. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 Jan;90(1):118-26.

Hoogenboom BJ, Voight ML, Cook G, Gill L. Using rolling to develop neuromuscular control and coordination of the core and extremities of athletes. N Am J Sports Phys Ther. 2009 May;4(2):70-82.
Courtney R, van Dixhoorn J, Cohen M. Evaluation of breathing pattern: comparison of a Manual Assessment of Respiratory Motion (MARM) and respiratory induction plethysmography. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2008 Jun;33(2):91-100.
Schleip R, Müller DG. Training principles for fascial connective tissues: scientific foundation and suggested practical applications. J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2013 Jan;17(1):103-15

Wilke J, Krause F, Vogt L, Banzer W. What Is Evidence-Based About Myofascial Chains: A Systematic Review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Mar;97(3):454-61.

Ongaro L., Fleischman R., Alberti G. Effects of training of respiratory muscles on FEV1" Proceedings of XIII International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Traumatology.The Rehabilitation of Sport Muscle and Tendon Injuries" Milan, Italy, April 24‐25, 2004, p. 110.
Ongaro L., Fleischman R., Limonta E., Caumo A., Alberti G. Effects of training of respiratory muscles on FEV1: one year follow up Proceedings of XIV International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Traumatology. TheAccelerated Rehabilitation of Injuried Athlete. Bologna, Italy, April 9‐10, 2005, p. 166.
Alberti G., Oliveri E., Caumo A., Ongaro L. Effect of the practice of constant physical exercise on respiratory parameters in smoking and nonsmoking subjects. Sport Sciences for Health; 1: 91‐95, 2005
Alberti G., Gigante A., Mariani M., Caumo A., Ongaro L. Training of respiratory muscles" Proceedings of XV International Congress on Sports Rehabilitation and Traumatology "The Rehabilitation of Winter and Mountain Sport Injuries. Torino, Italy, April 1‐2, 2006, p. 214‐217
Cometti G., Ongaro L., Alberti G. Stretching e performance sportiva: restrizioni applicative degli esercizi allungamento muscolare ‐ parte prima ‐ SdS; 60‐61: 47‐59, 2004
Cometti G., Ongaro L., Alberti G. Stretching e performance sportiva: restrizioni applicative degli esercizi allungamento muscolare - parte seconda ‐ SdS; 62‐63: 33‐40, 2004
Cometti G., Ongaro L., Alberti G.Riscaldamento e prestazione sportiva. I principi metodologici del riscaldamento per la prestazione sportiva - prima parte: gli aspetti teorici - SdS; 64: 17‐27, 2005
Cometti G., Ongaro L., Alberti G. Riscaldamento e prestazione sportiva. I principi metodologici del riscaldamento per la prestazione sportiva - seconda parte: gli aspetti applicativi - SdS; 65: 13‐24, 2005
Alberti G., Ongaro L. Gli aspetti applicativi dello stretching Scienza & Sport, 1: 72‐77, 2009 12.
Alberti G., Ongaro L. "Allungamento globale" SdS; 80: 17‐24, 2009
Myers TW. Meridiani miofasciali - Tecniche Nuove Editore, 2006
Lamb A. B. Nun's Applied Respiratory Physiology - VI Ed.
Bhertherat T. Guarire con l'antiginnastica - Oscar Mondadori
Barlow W. - Il principio di Alexander ‐ Celuc Libri, Milano 1981
Feldenkrais M. - Le basi del Metodo per la consapevolezza dei processi psicomotori. Astrolabio - Roma 1991
Alon R. Il metodo Feldenkrais - Red Edizioni, 2007
Wallace B. Allenamento all'equilibrio ‐ In : Therapeutic Exercise. Techniques for Intervention, pp.240‐262, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 2001
Conable B. - What Every Musician Needs to Know About the Body:The Application of Body Mapping to Making Music. Andover Press, 1998 Columbus OH, USA
Assessment methods and Criteria
Practical exam
M-EDF/02 - SPORT SCIENCES AND METHODOLOGY - University credits: 8
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Cavaggioni Luca