Veterinary Anatomic Pathology 1

A.Y. 2020/2021
5
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
VET/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The objectives of the course of "Veterinary Anatomic Pathology I" are to provide students with the knowledge necessary to recognize, describe, interpret and classify morphological changes (lesions, alterations) both macroscopic and microscopic of cells/ tissues/organs of domestic animals in the course of diseases and to correlate these modifications to their cause (etiology) to their development (pathogenesis) and eventual evolution.
Expected learning outcomes
1. Knowledge and understanding: the student, at the end of the course, must demonstrate knowledge of the main pathogenic mechanisms, their classification and of which morphological alterations are responsible. The student must know the main morphological alterations (lesions) found in the following systems: respiratory, digestive, nervous, skin and subcutis. He will have to know the importance of some pathologies due to their zoonotic character or their diffusion also at international level.
2. Appling knowledge and understanding: the student must demonstrate knowledge and concepts useful in order to establish correlations between the development of certain lesions and the possible consequences on the function of organs / tissues / cells. He will have to demonstrate that he can do a correct sampling for histological and cytological examination.
3. Making judgments: the student must demonstrate to be able to describe the most common and important macroscopic, histological and cytological pathological findings and interpret them in order to get the morphological diagnosis. When appropriate, critically argue the information acquired. Specific practicals on the interpretation of macroscopic and microscopic changes are devoted to this aspect.
4. Communication: the student must demonstrate the ability to express himself with scientifically appropriate terminology, in particular with regard to terminology related to lesions, diseases and etiological agents. It must know the format and the content of a histological and cytological report and know how to interpret it. The practicals are intended to stimulate the ability to express what is being examined and the ability to scientifically discuss with peers.
5. Lifelong learning skills: the student must demonstrate the ability to use the knowledge acquired to interpret cases or "new" aspects with the help of available sources of knowledge and a solid mental organization. The course will propose not completely resolved cases that will stimulate the student's curiosity to further investigate.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Lectures will take place:
1. for the module "Veterinary Pathology I": on-line, in asynchronous mode through the administration of lessons recorded using PowerPoint followed by a discussion in synchronous mode using Microsoft Teams during the scheduled hours of lectures.
2. for the Histopathology and cytopathology module: online, especially in synchronous mode, using Microsoft Teams during the during the scheduled hours of lectures.
On some occasions the on-line asynchronous mode will be used through the administration of lessons recorded using PowerPoint followed by a discussion in synchronous mode using Microsoft Teams platform during the scheduled hours of lectures.

The practicals will take place:
- online in synchronous mode using Microsoft Teams platform during the scheduled hours of practicals.
- in the classroom with a ratio of students / classroom capacity to ensure personal distance.
- in the anatomical room with a ratio of students / anatomical room capacity to ensure personal distance.
- in the microscopy classroom, with a ratio of of students / room capacity / number f microscopes to guarantee personal distance.

The exams will take place with a written test using applications made available by the University. Oral, for tuning the final score, via Microsoft Teams or via Skype.
Prerequisites for admission
The preliminary knowledge necessary to adequately face the course are the following:
- Basic subjects (physics, chemistry, biology);
- Veterinary anatomy;
- General veterinary pathology;
- Microbiology and veterinary immunology;
- Parasitology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of a written test possibly completed by an oral test.

For the written test there are 20 questions, multiple choice or open questions, which concern both the part of general veterinary pathological and the special veterinary pathology one. Questions always include at least one macroscopic and one microscopic image to comment. The time given to take the written test is around 80 minutes.

Evaluation criteria:
- any correct answer corresponds to 1,5 points;
- the written test in total corresponds to 30 points;
- candidates who obtain at least 18 points pass the written test.

Following the communication of the result of the written exam, the candidate can accept the mark, reject it or take a very short oral test which allows him to add up to 3 points or lose up to 2 points starting from the written result.
Anatomia patologica veterinaria 1
Course syllabus
Lectures

General part
- Introduction: introduction to the course, definitions, investigative material of veterinary anatomical pathology, applications of veterinary anatomical pathology in veterinary medicine;
- Post-mortal changes: main post-death changes, other post-death changes;
- Malformations: main categories, etiology and anatomo-pathological findings;
- Alterations from physical factors: dislocations (ectopias), changes in the lumen, alterations in the content of hollow viscera and foreign bodies, injuries from trauma, thermal, radiation, electricity;
- Alterations from exogenous chemical agents: etiology, pathogenesis and lesions of the main toxic substances;
- Circulatory disorders: hypoemia / hyperemia, dehydration / edema, hemorrhage, embolism, thrombosis, shock;
- Inflammatory processes (inflammation): acute nonspecific, chronic nonspecific, specific (granulomatous inflammation).

Special part
- Nasal and paranasal cavities, trachea larynx: ontogenetic changes, circulatory disorders, inflammatory processes, changes in the lumen;
- Lung: changes in the air content, circulation disorders, nonspecific pneumonia, specific pneumonia, parasitic lesions;
- Oral cavity and esophagus: ontogenetic alterations, alterations of physical-chemical origin, modifications of the lumen, metabolic alterations, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions;
- Forestomachs: post-mortal changes, foreign bodies, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions;
- Stomach: dislocations, foreign bodies, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions;
- Intestine: ontogenetic changes, dislocations, foreign bodies, changes in the lumen, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions;
- Liver: ontogenetic alterations, metabolic alterations, circulatory disorders, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions;
- Nervous system: ontogenetic alterations, metabolic alterations, circulatory disorders, spongiform encephalopathies, inflammatory processes, parasitic lesions.

Classroom practicals
- The gross examination
- Recognition and description of the basic cyto-histological aspects
- Colors in pathology
- The distribution of the lesions
- The shape of the lesions
- The erosions and ulcers
- The timing of lesions and the reparative processes
- The severity of the injuries
- Lesions induced by parasites
- The morphological diagnosis

Practicals in the anatomical room
Gross examination of organs with lesions.

Practicals in the microscopy room
Evaluation of cytopathology samples, especially inflammatory and some neoplastic cases.
Teaching methods
- Lectures
- Practicals in the classroom
- Practicals in the necropsy room
- Practicals in the microscopy room
Teaching Resources
Books:
1. Morfopatologia Generale Veterinaria. Mandelli G. e Scanziani E., Seconda edizione, 2005, Epitesto, Milano.
2. Trattato di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria. Guarda F., Mandelli G., Biolatti B., Scanziani E,, Quarta edizione, 2013, UTET, Torino.

Other teaching material:
All slides of the lectures and practicals are available in Ariel platform at:
http://escanzianiapv1.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v3/home/Default.aspx
Istopatologia e citopatologia
Course syllabus
Introduction to the course:
-General concepts and practical information

The cell:
-Recognizing cells in cytopathology samples
-Variation in neutrophils morphology

The sample (cytology and histology)
-Biopsy: definition and types
-Working on the cytology and histology samples (fixation, processing, routine and special stains)
-How to read a cytology sample: preliminary operation and microscopic evaluation

Adaptative mechanisms:
-Atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia

Degenerative processes:
-Intracellular processes: cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, vacuolar degeneration (cellular storage), mucinous epithelial, steatosis, dystrophy
-Extracellular processes: ialine degeneration, fibrinoid necrosis, amyloidosis

Necrosis:
-Unprogrammed cell death (necrosis): causes, types (coagulative type and its variations, liquefactive type), microscopic features and outcome.
-Differential between necrosis and post-mortal autolysis
-Programmed cell death (apoptosis): causes, microscopic features and outcome

Mineralization:
-Dystrophic mineralization
-Metastatic mineralization

Nonspecific inflammation:
-Acute: types, causes, gross and microscopic features
-Chronic: types, causes, gross and microscopic features

Granulomatous inflammatory process:
-Granuloma: types, causes, gross and microscopic features
-Pyogranuloma: types, causes, gross and microscopic features

Dermatopathology:
-Skin microscopic anatomy, melaninogenesis and elementary lesions
-Selection of cutaneous diseases with non-biological etiology: hereditary, nutritional, atrophic dermatosis, immune-mediated and due to physical and chemicals
-Selection of cutaneous disease due to biological causes: viral, bacterial, mycotic and parasitic

Cytopathology of common skin lesions:
-Introduction
-Non-infectious inflammatory lesions
-Inflammatory lesions due to biological causes
-Non inflammatory/non neoplastic lesions
-Neoplastic lesions: epithelial, mesenchymal, round and of melanocytic origin.
Teaching methods
- Classroom lessons (see: "program")
- Group work on school assignements given during lessons or via social media (facebook). Group works are discussed at the beginning of the next lesson.
Teaching Resources
Textbook:
none

Other study material:
-Ariel: lecture notes are provided into the account: "Istopatologia e Citopatologia". The addres is: https://mcaniattiic.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx
Lecture notes are made of two paired files. One file is in word (text) and the other (figures) is in powerpoint.
-During the period october-december, the course is supported by a closed facebook group named: "ANAPAT 1 - current year"
Anatomia patologica veterinaria 1
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Shifts:
Professor: Scanziani Eugenio
Turno 1 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Scanziani Eugenio
Turno 10 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Turno 11 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 12 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 13 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 14 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 15 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 16 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 2 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Scanziani Eugenio
Turno 3 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 4 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Turno 5 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Turno 6 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Turno 7 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Turno 8 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Turno 9 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Recordati Camilla
Istopatologia e citopatologia
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Caniatti Mario
Professor(s)
Reception:
mon-fry appointment needed (mario.caniatti@unimi.it)
My office (Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria)
Reception:
10-12 am, Monday
Anatomia patologica, Facolty of Veterinary Medicine, Via Celoria 10, Milan