Veterinary Anatomic Pathology 2

A.Y. 2020/2021
8
Max ECTS
88
Overall hours
SSD
VET/03
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
This course is designed to provide the student with the knowledge and learning experience of the gross and microscopic changes which accompany specific disease conditions of specific organs and the basic knowledge of general and systemic veterinary oncology. In Necropsy module the student will learn basic necropsy techniques which should be used to detect specific organ system pathologic findings and to draw rational diagnostic conclusions.
The objectives of the course are schematically identified as follows: 1 - Knowledge and understanding At the end of the course the student must have acquired the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to recognize the most frequent and important pathological lesions of the organs and systems treated during the course (including neoplastic lesions) and to identify their causes and pathogenesis. The student must also know the prognostic, health and economic consequences of the maindiseases treated. The student will have to know how to preserve a death animal before submission, which are the most important postmortal alterations, timing of their appearance and the various factor influencing them. 2 - Applying knowledge and understanding The student will have to use the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired to make a gross pathology diagnosis, and when necessary a differential diagnoses. He should also be able to indicate the most appropriate techniques and methods to achieve a correct anatomical-pathological diagnosis. Moreover, the student will have to be able to ascertain the animal death, to collect correctly the animal history, to perform a necropsy and the related report of the gross lesions observed employing the correct terminology.3 - Making judgments At the end of the course the student will have to show to be able to autonomously interpret the morphological alterations related to the anatomical-pathological lesions treated in the course and to correlate the lesion observed in order to define their role in the animal death..4 - Communication skills In order to develop the capacity of the future veterinary to communicate appropriately with the owner of the animal, at the end of the course the student is asked to explain what has been learned in a simple and clear way using the correct and appropriate scientific terminology
Expected learning outcomes
The expected learning outcomes of the course are schematically identified as follows:
1 - Knowledge and understanding At the end of the course the student must have acquired the theoretical and practical knowledge necessary to recognize the most frequent and important pathological lesions of the organs and systems treated during the course (including neoplastic lesions) and to identify their causes and pathogenesis. The student must also know the prognostic, health and economic consequences of the main diseases treated. The student will have to know how to preserve a death animal before submission, which are the most important postmortal alterations, timing of their appearance and the various factor influencing them.
2 - Applying knowledge and understanding The student will have to use the theoretical and practical knowledge acquired to make a gross pathology diagnosis, and when necessary a differential diagnoses. He should also be able to indicate the most appropriate techniques and methods to achieve a correct anatomical-pathological diagnosis. Moreover, the student will have to be able to ascertain the animal death, to collect correctly the animal history, to perform a necropsy and the related report of the gross lesions observed employing the correct terminology.
3 - Making judgments At the end of the course the student will have to show to be able to autonomously interpret the morphological alterations related to the anatomical-pathological lesions treated in the course and to correlate the lesion observed in order to define their role in the animal death..
4 - Communication skills In order to develop the capacity of the future veterinary to communicate appropriately with the owner of the animal, at the end of the course the student is asked to explain what has been learned in a simple and clear way using the correct and appropriate scientific terminology
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Teaching methods:
If the current condition will persist, frontal lessons will be held in the presence of half the students in alternate weekly shifts. Half of the students not present in the classroom will be guaranteed the use of the lessons using the Microsoft Teams (MT) platform in synchronous form on the basis of the scheduled time. All lessons will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform. The practices held for all students will be delivered remotely in synchronous form using the MS Teams platform. The practices for small groups of students in the sector room will be held in presence.
In the event of a health emergency involving the impossibility of accessing the educational facilities, all teaching, both frontal and practical, will be held using the Microsoft Teams (MT) platform in synchronous form on the basis of the scheduled time. All lessons will be recorded and left available to students on the same platform.
Bibliography:
The program and study material will not change.
Assessment methods and criteria:
If the current condition will persist, the exam will be held in written form in classroom of the methods and rules provided for in this syllabus.
In the event of a health emergency involving the impossibility of accessing the teaching facilities, the exams will be held in written form using the MS Teams platform. Number (15) and type of questions will not be different from those normally asked in classroom (multiple choice questions with one or more correct answers; correlation of items; open questions with short answers; description of images and their interpretation). The questions will be formulated in a simple way, to provide quick answers, and the time available for each question will vary from 3 '(multiple choice questions) to 5' (description of images) for a total of one hour. The evaluation criteria remain unchanged with respect to the examination carried out in presence mode. More detailed information on how to conduct the remote written exam is published on the Ariel website of Veterinary Pathological Anatomy 2.
Prerequisites for admission
To take the exam, the student must have passed the exams of the Veterinary General Pathology, Veterinary Microbiology and Immunology, Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases and Veterinary Pathological Anatomy I.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam is unique for the modules in which the course is divided and consists of a written test and a practical test. The tests are aimed at assessing that the student knows, can describe with appropriate terminology and classifies:
- lesions and alterations of the cardio-circulatory, musculoskeletal, urinary and reproductive systems during the main diseases of domestic animals and to know how to correlate them with their etiology, pathogenesis and possible evolution and to understand their prognostic value
- the main neoplastic diseases of pets and to understand their prognostic value
- the basic necropsy techniques and apply them, together with the knowledge previously acquired, to the diagnostic practice
WRITTEN TEST
Only passing the written exam allows access to the practical test while maintaining its validity for 6 successive appeals. There are 15 open and multiple choice questions of description, comment and diagnosis of pathological lesions reproduced in projected images, which concern the Veterinary Pathological Anatomy II, Veterinary Oncology and Autopsy programs. Up to 2 points correspond to each correct answer. For partially correct answers fractions of points are assigned. Attention in the attribution of the score is also paid to the use of correct scientific terminology. The total written test corresponds to 30 points. Students who obtain at least 18 points pass the written test. The duration of the test is 1 hour.
PRACTICAL TEST
The practical test will be held subsequently by those who have passed the oral test. The test refers exclusively to the courses of Veterinary Pathological Anatomy II and Autopsies. The exam will take place on pathological viscera of farm animals and on a pet animal corpse and will be aimed at assessing the ability to apply the knowledge acquired to practice. The student may be asked to know how to explain the contents of an anatomic-pathological or necropsy report in a simple but correct scientific terminology.
During the year, exams are distributed as follows: January, February, March / April (one appeal in two months, in late March or early April), June, July, September, October, November / December (one appeal in two months, in late November or early December)
Veterinary Pathological Anatomy II
Course syllabus
Lessons
The major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described in the lectures. The following model is applied to descirbe lesions in each chapter: post mortal changes, developmental anomalies and malformations, physico-chemical injury, metabolic diseases, disturbances of circulation, inflammation, parasitic diseases.
Cardiovascular system pathology (hours 4)
Heart - fluid accumulations in the pericardial sac, serous atrophy of pericardial fat, pericarditis, myocardial degenerations and necrosis, dietetic myocardial dystrophy, cardiomyopaties, myocarditis, parasites, endocardial calcification, valvular endocardiosis, endocarditis
Arteries - ruptures, aneurysms, thrombosis, degenerative and regressive arteriopathies (amyloidosis, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, calcification, fibrinoid change of the arterial wall), arteritis, blood vessels parasites
Veins - ectasia, varicosity, thrombosis, phlebitis
Hematopoietic system pathology (hours 3)
Spleen - Developmental abnormalities, ectopy, ruptures, circulatory disturbances (congestion, hematomas, infarction), metabolic changes (amyloidosis, hemosiderosis, necrosis), splenitis, parasites
Lymph nodes - atrophy, pigmentary changes, necrosis, , circulatory disturbances, lymphadenitis, lymphangectasis, lymphangytis
Urinary system pathology (hours 4)
Kidney - Developmental abnormalities, circulatory disturbances (hemorrhage, infarction), trophic, degenerative and regressive changes (atrophy, vacuolar tubular degeneration, lipidosis, amyloidosis, necrosis), pigmentary and chrystalline nephrosis, nephritis (Glomerulonephritis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, purulent nephritis, granulomatous nephritis), parasitic diseases of the kidney
Lower urinary system - Hydronephrosis, developmental abnormalities of the urinary bladder, bovine enzootic hematuria, urolithiasis, cystitis
Male reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Testis - Developmental abnormalities (aplasia, chryptorchidism, hermaphrodite), atrophy, necrosis, calcification, orchitis, periorchitis, vaginalitis, sperm granuloma
Prostate gland - hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, prostatic cysts, prostatitis
Penis and prepuce - phimosis, paraphimosis, posthitis, balanoposthitis (EHV3 and Trypanosoma equiperdum, habronemiasis)
Female reproductive system pathology (hour 1)
Hermaphrodite, pseudohermaphrodite, oophoritis, ovarian cysts, hydrosalpinx, salpingitis, Developmental abnormalities of the uterus, uterine distopy, uterine and vaginal prolapse, cystic endometrial hyperplasy, hydrometra, mucometra, adenomyosis, endometritis, metritis, biopsie uterine biopsies in mare, vaginitis, vulvovaginitis
Abortion (hour 1)
Embryonic death, mummification, maceration, infectious abortion (bovine, small ruminants, equine, swine, dog and cat)
Skeletal muscle pathology (hours 2)
Circulatory disturbances, atrophy, lipomatosis, vacuolar, granular, hyaline degeneration, Zenker's necrosis, calcification, dietetic myopaties, myositis, granulomas, parassiti (sarcosporidiosis, cysticercosis, trichinosis)
Mammary gland pathology (The topic will be treated during practices with slides projection, description and discussion of the most important changes and lesions. Slide presentation with notes will be available)
Mastitis
Bone and joints pathology (The topic will be treated during practices to small groups using museum material (bones). Slide presentation with notes will be available).
Fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (rachitism, osteomalacia, fibrous osteodystrophy, fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), pigmental changes, periostitis, osteomyelitis. Dyscopathy, arthritis and polyarthritis
Practices
Bone and joints pathology: practical rotation with small groups of students using pathologic material form museum (ore 2)
Local and systemic bone malformations, fracture, osteoporosis, dystrophy (fluorosis, Hypervitaminosis A, acropachia), periostitis, osteomyelitis, arthritis.
Description and discussion of gross changes of organs: practical rotation with small groups of students using organs from slaughters (Necropsy room) (3 rotations of 2 hours)
Serous athrophy of fat, pericarditis, endocarditis, infartcion of kidney, nephritis, lymph nodes pigmentations, lymphadenitis, splenic congestion, perisplenitis, splenitis, artritis are the most frequent observed and discussed findings
Projection, description and discussion of images of gross lesions of organs. (Classroom) (4 rotations of 2 hours).Some of the major and most frequent lesions of cardiovascular system pathology, hematopoietic system pathology, urinary system pathology, male reproductive system pathology, female reproductive system pathology, abortion, mammary gland pathology, bone and joints pathology, scheletal muscle pathology, are described and discussed.
Teaching methods
Lectures, exercises in the dissection room, description and discussion in the classroom of images of gross lesions and autopsy pictures.
Teaching Resources
The reference teaching material, in the form of pdf files of the Power Point presentations used during the lessons, is published online in the Ariel 2.0 portal of the University site at http://ariel.unimi.it/User/Default.aspx
At the same address are reported iconographic material relating to the main anatomical and pathological lesions observed during the practices, links to sites related to the veterinary pathology and to documents and sites of general interest concerning veterinary medicine. Many of these documents relate to regulatory and deontological aspects of the veterinary profession.
Suggested books
- Trattato di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria a cura di F. Guarda e G. Mandelli, B. Biolatti, E. Scanziani quarta edizione, 2013, UTET, Torino.
For more information an knowledge
- Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, 5th Edition di Zachary & McGavin, Mosby Ed.
- Patologia Sistematica Veterinaria, P.S. Marcato, II edizione, 2015, Edagricole
Veterinary oncology
Course syllabus
Basic principles of oncology, definitions, hallmarks of differentiation, staging and grading, basic mechanisms of invasion and metastatization (2 hrs)
Tumors of the alimentary system (oral cavity, esophagus, prestomachs, stomach, intestine) (2 hrs)
Tumors of liver and pancreas (1 hour)
Tumors of the urinary system (1 hour)
Tumors of the male and female genital system (1 hour)
Tumors of the respiratory system (nasal cavities, laryngeal, lungs) (2 hrs)
Tumors of the heart and vessels (1 hour)
Tumors of the skeletal system (1 hour)
Tumors of the integumentary system (2 hrs)
Tumors of the mammary gland (1 hour)
Tumors of the lymphoproliferative system (1 hour)
Tumors of the central nervous system (1 hour)
Teaching methods
The module consists of 2 CFU (16 hrs) of theoretical teaching and presentation of short clinical-pathological cases with direct involvement of students in the discussion of the diagnosis
Teaching Resources
The reference teaching material, in the form of pdf files of the Power Point presentations used during the lessons, is published online in the Ariel 2.0 portal of the university website at the address
https://cgiudiceo.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v5/home/Default.aspx
Suggested books
Tumors of domestic animals 5th edition, 2017, Meuten, ed. Wiley Blackwell
Trattato di Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria. Guarda F., Mandelli G., Biolatti B., Scanziani E, IV Edizione, 2013, UTET, Torino
Autopsies
Course syllabus
THEORETICAL LESSONS
- Course introduction (1 HOUR). Definitions, motivation and advantages of the necropsy.
- Death verification and animal history collection (2 HOURS)- how to verify that the animal is death. Detailed list of the important animal historical data to be collected before necropsy. Environmental data of the place the corps was dead/found dead.
- Post-mortem modification and putrefaction (3HOURS) . Hypostasis and hypostatic spots evolution, cadaveric and putrefactive spots. Algor, pallor and rigor mortis. Characteristics of the animal and of the environment that can influence rigor mortis. Cadaveric dehydration, ocular post-mortem alterations. Putrefactive meteorism and emphysema.
- Exams of the single abdominal and thoracic organs (2 HOURS). How to extract the various organs and in which order. Principal indicators of pathology organ by organ
PRACTICES
- Necropsy of pet animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy room, students are divided in small groups, each one examining a cat or a dog.
Students describe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Necropsy of large animals (10 HOURS). In necropsy room, students are divided in small groups, each one examining bovine, swine or equine. Students describe the observed lesions to be discussed with the teacher in order to individuate the possible cause of the death.
- Seminars (12 HOURS). 6 SEMINARS OF 2 HOURS EACH in which at the beginning are showed the single steps of the necropsy (adults and neonates). Images illustrating the necropsy findings of the most important infectious diseases of dog and cat and the most important organs lesions are illustrated and discussed with students. Images of weapon healings and brief comments on ballistic.
Teaching methods
The module consists of 3 credits
- 1 Credit (8 hours) of theoretical lessons
- 2 credits (32 hours) of practices, mostly in necropsy room examining cadavers of small and large animals and a part dedicated to seminars in which images of necropsy cases are illustrated and discussed.
Teaching Resources
The reference teaching material is pdf file relating to Power Point presentations used by the teacher in theoretical lessons and seminar activities. This material is available online in the Ariel 2.0 University website at the address:
http://vgriecoa.ariel.ctu.unimi.it/v3/frm3/ThreadList.aspx?fc=PZLUKKTo1…
Suggested books
Tecnica autoptica e diagnostica cadaverica. Autori: Taccini - Rossi - Gili - Editore: Poletto Editore, Milano, 2006 .
Trattato di anatomia Patologica Veterinaria. Autori: Guarda, Mandelli, Biolatti, Scanziani - Quarta Edizione - Editore: UTET, Torino, 2013
Autopsies
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 8 hours
Shifts:
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 1 per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 10 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Riccaboni Pietro
Turno 2 per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 3 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 4 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 5 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 6 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Grieco Valeria
Turno 7 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Riccaboni Pietro
Turno 8 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Riccaboni Pietro
Turno 9 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Riccaboni Pietro
Veterinary oncology
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Giudice Chiara
Veterinary Pathological Anatomy II
VET/03 - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY - University credits: 3
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Shifts:
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 1 per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 2 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 3 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 4 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Turno 5 per un gruppo di studenti
Professor: Sironi Giuseppe
Professor(s)
Reception:
E-mail
Pathology ward in Veterinary hospital - Lodi
Reception:
Monday to Friday, by appointment
Anatomia Patologica Veterinaria - Lodi