A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/03 BIO/05
Learning objectives
The main aim of the lessons is the understanding of living organisms, especially plants and animals. The Agricultural Botany teaching module will present plant cell, stems, leaves, roots, reproductive organs, reproductive strategies and systematic botany (with emphasis on certain seed-plant families with agronomic and productive roles). The Animal Biology module aims to provide basic zoological knowledge, illustrating the functions that - despite being common to all animals - are implemented differently by different animals due to varying morphology and environments. The body plans (Bauplan) of the most important Phyla will also be described.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course students should have acquired:
· basic knowledge to recognize and describe the main plant structures at the levels of cell, tissue and organ, also offering the possibility to valorize plant diversity and promote its conservation. Understanding of the metabolic processes, growth and survival of plants; understanding of the evolution and phylogenetic relationships between different kinds of plants.
· basic knowledge of animal biology needed to study anatomy and physiology of domestic animals and entomology. In general: the ability to study independently, drawing from various sources of information (lectures, teaching lab., internet, the botanic garden and bibliographic study/library); capacity to summarize and communicate in a concise way a large range of knowledge.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
Lectures will take place on Microsoft Teams in synchrony, at the established times, and recordings of the lectures will be available on the ARIEL website of the course. In addition, lectures in person will be periodically organized (these can be booked via the App lessonsunimi) simultaneously with live streaming on Teams (24/09/2020, Room C04 via Colombo; 28/10/2020, C04; 25/11/2020, G12 via Golgi; 17/12/2020, C04). Information on how to access the lectures on Microsoft Teams and other instructions will be uploaded on the ARIEL website of the course, together with the teaching material (slides displayed during the lessons): regular consultation is recommended. The course program has varied: unfortunately the space available for the microscopy laboratory can allow access to only a few people at a time, and is not compatible with the number of students enrolled in the course in the current healthcare context. Reference materials are unchanged.
The exam will take place in person, in written form, or where the regulations relating to the COVID health emergency do not allow it, in oral form using the Microsoft Teams platform.

The examination, in particular, will be aimed at:

- ascertain the achievement of the objectives in terms of knowledge and understanding;
- verify the student's autonomy of judgment also through the analysis of the cases discussed or mentioned during the course
- ascertain the mastery of the specific language and the ability to present the arguments in a clear and orderly way.
Course syllabus
'G26-4-A' - 'Teaching unit 1: agricultural botany'.

8 ECTS Credits undertaken during the entire first semester, divided in 4 ECTS Credits of Plant Biology (October - November), and 4 ECTS Credits of Systematic Botany (December - January).

I.The fundamentals of Biology: Characteristics of Living Organisms: autotrophy and heterotrophy; the role of plants in the biosphere. The chemistry of living things. Key chemical bonds. Water and life. The main organic molecules in biology. Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids and products of secondary metabolism, proteins, nucleotides and nucleic acids. II. Cytology (cell biology) - general characteristics of the cell. Procaryotes and Eucaryotes. The components of the eucaryotic cell. Typical structure of the plant cell (cell walls, plastids, vacuole). Genetic information and the cell cycle. Replication and transcription; translation and protein synthesis. Genes and chromosomes, genotype and phenotype. Mitosis and Meiosis. III. Histology and Plant Anatomy. Structural organisation of the plant. Thallus and Corm.Meristematic tissues. Adult tissues. Vegetative organs of higher plants: roots, stems and leale. Reproductive organs of higher plants.

IV. The Basics of Systematic Botany (general part). General classification of plants. Metagenetic cycles. Vegetative propagation and sexual reproduction. Principal groups of cryptogams: algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes and pteridophytes. Characteristics of the spermatophytes: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. Principal differences between Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. V. The Basics of Systematic Botany (special part). Monocots: Poaceae, Liliaceae, Iridaceae, Amaryllidaceae. Dicots: Salicaceae, Juglandaceae, Fagaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Apiaceae, Oleaceae, Rutaceae, Vitaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Solanaceae, Asteraceae. VI. Practical laboratory work involving observation using the optical microscope and the preparation of histological and anatomic samples. Techniques for the recognition of species by the observation of reproductive and vegetative characters.

'G26-4-B' - 'Teaching Unit 2: animal biology'.
4 ECTS Credits, undertaken from October to November.

Preliminary knowledge to the understanding in animal biology. Basic knowledge about the structure of the animals, body architecture (=Bauplane), morphology of the different systems. Elements of biology of the animals living in different environments. Reproductive strategies. Adaptations to different environmental factors (temperature, oxygen, salinity, et c.). Interactions between organisms: competition, predation, parasitism. Principles of zoological nomenclature, criteria of classification and the identification of the organisms. Laboratory Techniques of harvest and maintenance of the animals with sampling in the field. Recognition of the organisms in the field and in the laboratory with the use of dichotomous keys. Investigations in laboratory on the fauna of inland waters.
Prerequisites for admission
Basic notions of general chemistry and biology at high-school level.
Teaching methods
'G26-4-A' - 'Teaching unit 1: agricultural botany'.
7 ECTS Credits of lectures + 1 ECTS Credit of Teaching Laboratory.
'G26-4-B' - 'Teaching Unit 2: animal biology'.
Attendence of lectures is strongly advised, attendence of the teaching laboratory is facultative.
Teaching material consists of .pdf files of each lesson, and will be available on the ARIEL platform.
Teaching Resources
'G26-4-A' - 'Teaching unit 1: agricultural botany'.
The reference texts are the same for attending and non-attending students. Useful texts:
Pasqua G. Abbate G. and Forni C (eds.) 2019 - Botanica Generale e diversità vegetale. Piccin ed. (MAIN TEXT);

Calzoni G.L., Speranza A. , 1996 - Struttura della piante in immagini. Guida all'anatomia microscopica delle piante vascolari - Zanichelli, Bologna.
Gerola F.M. (a cura di), Biologia e diversità dei vegetali, UTET.
Judd, Campbell, Kellogg, Stevens - Botanica sistematica, un approccio filogenetico - PICCIN (si consiglia la lettura della parte generale)
Longo C., Biologia vegetale Vol. 1 Forme e funzioni - Utet
Lüttge U., Kluge M., Bauer G., 1997 - Botanica - Zanichelli, Bologna.
Pupillo P., Cervone F., Cresti M., Rascio N., 2003 - Biologia Vegetale - Zanichelli
Raven P.H., Evert R.F., Eichorn S.E., 2002 - Biologia delle piante. VI edizione - Zanichelli, Bologna.
Ray P.M., Steeves T.A., Fultz S.A, 1985 - Botanica - Zanichelli, Bologna.
Venturelli F., Virli L., 1995 - Invito alla Botanica, con esercitazioni di laboratorio - Zanichelli, Bologna.

'G26-4-B' - 'Teaching Unit 2: animal biology'.
Solomon, Berg, Martin. Biologia-Struttura e processi vitali negli animali. EdiSES 2006 Purves, Sadava, Orians, Heller. Biologia-La biologia degli animali. Zanichelli 2001 Dorit, Walker, Barnes. Zoologia. Zanichelli. 1997. Hickman, Roberts, Larson, L'anson. Fondamenti di Zoologia McGraw-Hill 2005
Assessment methods and Criteria
'G26-4-A' - 'Teaching unit 1: agricultural botany'.
The exam will be oral (via the Team of the course) and will be comprised of a multiple choice test and an open, written response to a question (2 hours).
'G26-4-B' - 'Teaching Unit 2: animal biology'.
Oral exam, interview on the arguments presented during the lessons (25-30 minutes).
'G26-4-A' - 'Unità didattica 1: botanica agraria'.
L'esame sarà scritto e comprenderà tipicamente test a risposta multipla e un esercizio a risposta libera (2 ore).
'G26-4-B' - 'Unità didattica 2: biologia animale'.
Esame orale, colloquio sugli argomenti svolti a lezione (25-30 minuti).
The parametrs for evaluation for both modules are: knowledge of all the course subjects (plant biology, animal biology and systematic botany), the capacity to understand and communicate the relationships between different scales of investigation (cellulare, tissue, whole organism) and the survival of the organism.
The grade for Biology (12 ECTS Credits) will be composed of the votes for the esams of Botany (8ECTS Credits) and Animal Biology (4 ECTS Credits) and thus weighted in favour of the credits in Botany. For example, a grade of 25/30 in Animal Biology and 30/30 in Botany will become a final mark of 28/30.

Students with a DSA certificate are asked to contact the teacher promptly to allow the classroom to be booked beyond the time limit of 2 hours, and to discuss the possibility of using study cards during the exam.
The results of the exam will be published anonymously on the ARIEL platform, using the matriculation number followed by the grade obtained. An email will be sent to the students email account ( with an invitation to accept or refuse the grade. There will be no intermediate tests, due to the complexity of organizing a course with two teaching modules.
Agricultural Botany
Laboratories: 16 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Pierce Simon
Animal biology
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Colombini Stefania