Chemical methods for biotechnology

A.Y. 2021/2022
8
Max ECTS
88
Overall hours
SSD
CHIM/02 CHIM/06
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the basics of i) analytical chemistry ii) physical chemistry iii) mass spectrometry iv) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, to make students autonomous for the study of processes and reactions of biological interest. The course, appropriately accompanied by practical laboratory exercises, is dedicated to the acquisition of skills related to the most common basic and instrumental analytical (electroanalytical, spectroscopic, chromatographic, NMR and mass) techniques.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student should be able to
- interpret analytical titration data (pHmetry, complexation, precipitation, redox);
- understand and apply the principles of conductivity, spectroscopy and chromatography, also in relation to laboratory experiences;
- understand and apply the principles of thermodynamics and both theoretical and practical aspects of chemical kinetics;
- comment and discuss equations and graphs presented in class
- interpret spectra and identify the structure of simple organic compounds starting from corresponding 1H and 13C NMR and MS spectra
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation. The teaching in the emergency phase will take place synchronously on the TEAMS or similar platform. The exercises will take place synchronously and will be recorded and made available to students who cannot participate. The registrations will be available on TEAMS (STREAM or ONEDRIVE) or similar platform.
Since the course includes laboratory exercises, we will consider carrying them out in small groups. In the event of inability to carry out face-to-face exams, they will take place on the exam.net website in combination with zoom or similar platforms.
Course syllabus
Elements of Analytical Chemistry
Basic analytical principles. Preparation of standard solutions and exercises on preparation of solutions.
In-depth analysis of colorimetric titrations (acid-base, complexometric, precipitation, redox).
Exercises on the processing of titration data. Conductimetric electroanalytical techniques:
direct and indirect conductimetry. Spectroscopic techniques: UV-vis, fluorimetry, polarimetry.
Chromatographic separation techniques: TLC, GC, HPLC. Potentiometric electroanalytical techniques: direct and indirect pH-metry.

Elements of Physical Chemistry
Fundamentals: Equation of state of perfect gases. Van der Waals' state equation for real gases Chemical thermodynamics: the first principle (conservation of energy). Internal energy and enthalpy. Second principle and entropy. Entropic changes in the system and in the environment. The spontaneous character of chemical reactions. Gibbs energy and its variation. The chemical potential. Chemical kinetics. Kinetic laws, rate constants (coefficients) and orders of reaction.
Methods for determining the kinetic law.
Zeroth, first, and second order reactions. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature.
The Arrhenius equation.

Mass spectrometry and NMR
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): resonance phenomenon, spectral parameters: chemical shift and coupling constants, mono-dimensional proton and 13C experiments, Overhauser's effect: theory, examples and applications.
Mass spectrometry: Instrumentation, ionization methods, main fragmentation reactions of organic compounds, examples and applications.

EXPERIMENTAL LABORATORY: the goal of the experimental laboratory is getting acquaintance with the preparation of solutions and the determination/resolution of appropriate mixtures through use of specific analytical techniques and collections of experimental (spectrophotometric, conductivity, pH) data, which are eventually diagrammed and processed on the basis of appropriate chemical-physical relationships.
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of the basic concepts of general, inorganic and organic chemistry, molecular structure, mathematics and numerical calculation.
Teaching methods
Lectures, excercises, practical exsercises in laboratory
Teaching Resources
- S. P.J. Higson, Analytical Chemistry, Oxford University Press
- G. D. Christian, Analytical Chemistry, Wiley-VCH
- P.W. Atkins, Physical Chemistry
- Guida Pratica alla Interpretazione di Spettri NMR, Antonio Randazzo, Loghia, 2018
- Lecturers notes
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written: The exam will consist of a written final test with a maximum score of 30/30 cum laude. The test will be divided into three parts, each made of one exercise and one theoretical question. Each part will be assessed up to a maximum of 10 points. In addition, the final score will take into account also the evaluation of the report concerning the practical experiences carried out in the laboratory (maximum 3 additional points) .
The exam will last two hours and half.
Any additional information on the assessment methods will be explained during the course.
CHIM/02 - PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
CHIM/06 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 24 hours
Single bench laboratory practical: 24 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
To be agreed via email
Department of Chemistry, Ground Floor, Sector B, Room R12S/R11S
Reception:
Friday from 11.30 to 13.30