Chemical Toxicology Analysis

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The main objective of the course is to provide the student with the theoretical foundations and practical tools of analytical chemistry necessary for qualitative and quantitative determinations of a material sample, with particular reference to samples of medicinal plants. In addition to knowledge of basic techniques, critical skills will be developed in judging the accuracy and precision of the experimental data.
The laboratory experiences aim to provide student with the technical ability to apply knowledge and understanding of phenomena related to chemical reactivity to quantitative determination of species in real samples. Students will be able to research, understand and develop operational protocols for analytical determinations on samples of medicinal plants, thanks to the application of some of the analytical techniques proposed during the lessons.
Expected learning outcomes
The acquired skills will allow the student to develop a critical sense in the evaluation of the basic, theoretical and practical knowledge of analytical chemistry, with particular reference to the understanding of simultaneous chemical equilibria in aqueous solution, and to the qualitative and quantitative definition of the present species, acquiring the ability to critically evaluate the results of the experimental procedures.
In particular, through the laboratory experiences, the student will develop the ability to work in the laboratory, applying "good practices" and respecting safety standards.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2022/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
The course, which includes both frontal lessons and laboratory exercises, accompanies the student on his first entry into a chemical laboratory. The main methods of analysis proposed in the theoretical lessons are applied, with particular regard to the qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis. The study program here reported is for both attending and non-attending students.
During the frontal lectures, the following topics will be chronologically illustrated:
Definition of analytical chemistry and of analytical methods. Sampling of herbal preparations for analysis. Scale analysis. The chemical laboratory: safety standards and description of laboratory equipment. Errors in chemical analysis. Hints of statistics. Expression of concentration: molarity, normality, percentage concentration, parts per million and per billion. Solution preparation. Chemistry of aqueous solutions.
Precipitation: product of solubility and solubility. General analytical operations. Qualitative inorganic analysis and applications in the herbal field: flame test, search for anions and cations in solution. Gravimetric analysis and applications in the herbal field. Volumetric analysis and applications in the herbalist field: generalities, acidimetry and alkalimetry, tritation using silver nitrate, permanganometry, iodimetry and iodometry, complexometry.
During the laboratory exercises the contents of the lectures will be applied and tests will be proposed, subject to evaluation. The pH of acidic and basic solutions will be analyzed. In detail, we will proceed to analyze inorganic compounds. In particular: flame test and analysis of the anions and cations (registered in the EP) in solution; insoluble inorganic substances will be recognized through the application of specific tests.
As regards the volumetric qualitative analysis, we will proceed with the analysis of herbal samples containing Vitamin C with Iodine N/10, and with a titre control, by acidimetry and alkalimetry, of an acetolite. The total ashes of Altea Radix will be gravimetrically measured according to EP.
Prerequisites for admission
The preliminary knowledge needed to adequately address the contents of the course is provided by the basic notions of general and inorganic chemistry thought during this course, which is hold in the former semester.
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures and laboratory exercises (obligatory frequency). During the lectures, the topics will be illustrated through the use of slides or videos, also by means of specific exercises based on case studies taken from the recent literature. During the laboratory training, the students will analyze known and unknown samples.
Teaching Resources
All the teaching material shown during the lectures will be available to students on the Ariel platform. This educational material will be available also for non-attending students. Students will also be able to deepen the topics in the following texts:
· Morelli, G. Flamini, L. Pistelli -MANUALE DELL'ERBORISTA- Tecniche Nuove;
· A.Araneo: CHIMICA ANALITICA QUALITATIVA-Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
· Carmine Rubino, Italo Venzaghi, Renato Cozzi, Stechio & Lab - LE BASI DELL'ANALISI CHIMICA

Before each laboratory experiences, updated notes will be uploaded by the teachers on the Ariel platform. For further information, we recommend the following texts:
· Farmacopea Ufficiale Italiana X Edizione.
· A.Araneo: CHIMICA ANALITICA QUALITATIVA-Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
· Carmine Rubino, Italo Venzaghi, Renato Cozzi, Stechio & Lab - LE BASI DELL'ANALISI CHIMICA
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam includes a written test and some laboratory tests, also subject to evaluation.
The written exam has 5-7 points regarding:
· open questions related to the program;
· resolution of stoichiometry and/or analytical chemistry exercises;
· balancing of some chemical equations.
The student must generally answer all the questions proposed in a maximum time of two hours.
The evaluation of the written test will take into account the student's ability to understand the questions and know how they apply the knowledge acquired through the use of an appropriate scientific language.
The laboratory tests consist in the analysis of unknown samples aimed at the qualitative-quantitative recognition of the substances being investigated; during the test the student can use the laboratory notes and the EP. The test evaluation will take into account the student's ability of applying the main methods of qualitative-quantitative analysis, in order to identify and/or quantify the active principles and how the students manage independently the related problems. The mark of the written test will be added to the global one obtained in the laboratory tests and will be expressed in thirtieths.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 7
Single bench laboratory practical: 32 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Turno 1
Professor: Meneghetti Fiorella
Turno 2
Professor: Meneghetti Fiorella
Educational website(s)