Chemistry, biology and genetics

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
AGR/17 BIO/05 CHIM/03 CHIM/06
Learning objectives
The aim of the course is to provide the student with notions of cellular biology through the dissertation of cellular components at the structural, compositional and functional levels, as well as of the mechanisms of duplication, transmission and expression of the genetic information. The course will also provide the essential information for the study of the genetic and molecular basis of evolution and development of domestic animals. Finally, the course will provide the students with basic theoretical knowledge of evolution and biological systematics. The course will enable the student to acquire both a critical approach to the study of the diversity of living matter and the expression of genetic information in the transmission of hereditary traits, which are propaedeutic notions for the study of subsequent courses.
The Chemistry course is aimed to provide the knowledges of General, Inorganic and Organic Chemistry suitable to learn at the molecular level the topics of later courses. Besides basic concepts about quali- and quantitative composition of inorganic and organic compounds (including biological macromolecules), the course deals with fundamental aspects of stoichiometry, chemical equilibrium, thermodinamics, stereochemistry and structure-reactivity relationship, which are essential to deeply understand any biological process.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding
- Description of the morphology and function of the main components and its specializations of eukaryotic cells; the basic principles of how cells interact in the context of multicellular organisms;
- identification of the basic principles regulating cell cycle and the mechanisms of cell division (mitosis and meiosis); gametogenesis and the basic principles of the early stages of embryonic development;
- identification of the basic principles of the origin of life, evolution and natural selection; basic notions on systematics and classification of living organisms; classification and main characteristics of invertebrate and vertebrate species studied during the course.
- Demonstrate knowledge of basic genetics; hereditary diseases control in breeding programs
- Identification of the hereditary transmission mechanisms
- Control of the morphological characters that are useful in breeding
- Rating of the different coupling systems
- Inorganic and organic nomenclature
- The structure and the function of the most relevant substances in biological systems, including macromolecules
- The behaviour of solutes in aqueous solutions
- The stereochemistry of asymmetric organic compounds.
Applying knowledge and understanding
- During the observation of histological preparations, the student will be able to describe the structure and function of the main cellular components in a tissue context; they will be able to recognize diploid and haploid cells in the context of male and female gonads
The student will be able to read results of parentage tests. Manage genetic evaluation information
- The student will be able to answer basic questions on animal evolution, systematics and diversity of the animal kingdom
- The student will be able to use of chemical formula to represent the structure of inorganic and organic compounds of biological relevance (including macromolecules) and to deduce their function;
- The student will be able to perform stoichiometric calculations;
- The student will be able to predict the pH value from the composition of aqueous solutions;
- The student will be able to establish stereochemistry of asymmetric organic compounds and recognize functional groups in organic compounds
Communication skills
- Self-study of the aspects related to the scientific field to which the student will focus in his own future
- Proper use of technical-scientific terminology
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for a.y. 2021-22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisite
Assessment methods and Criteria
Genetics: The exam will consist into a written test. Open and multiple choice exercises and questions
Biology: Open and multiple choice questions
Chemistry: Open and multiple choice exercises and questions
Course syllabus
Atomic structure. Periodic table. Periodical properties. Chemical bonds. Molecular Geometry (2 h)
Stoichiometry (3 h)
Acids and bases (5 h)
Thermodinamics (2 h)
Electrochemistry (2 h)
Osmosis (1 h)
Hydrocarbons (2 h)
Stereochemistry ( 3 h)
Main functional groups (3 h)
Main reaction mechanisms ( 2 h)
Proteins (2 h)
Carbohydrates (2 h)
Lipids (2 h)
Nucleotides (1 h)

Inorganic nomenclature (2 h)
pH calculations (4 h)
Calculation examples on thermodinamics, electrochemistry and osmosis (2 h)
Organic nomenclature (2 h)
Examples of reaction mechanisms(2 h)
Structures of peptides, mono- e disaccharides, lipids (4 h)
Teaching methods
Lectures and classroom seminars
Teaching Resources
Learning material on Ariel.
Any University treatise on General and Organic Chemistry
for example:
Tro - Chimistry. A molecular approach - EdiSES
Brown, Poon - Introduction to Organica Chemistry - EdiSES
Genetics, general biology and zoology
Course syllabus
Didactic Unit - Genetics
The basic genetics module is divided into two sections:
1. A theoretical part of Mendelian genetics relating to species of zootechnical interest
2. An exercise part that will allow the student to put the notions received into practice

Frontal teaching (24 hours)
1. Mendelian Genetics
2. Mendel's laws exceptions: Epistasis, Interactions, Lethal genes
3. Test-cross, Pedigree analysis
4. Sex-linked, sex-limited and sex-influenced characters
5. Cross-environment genetic correlations, penetrance, genetic expressivity, pleiotropy
6. Molecular, Genetic, Immunological markers and their application on animal production
7. Chromosomes and Genes: Cariotype, genes and chromosomes mutations
8. Association and crossing over; genetic, physical and comparative maps
9. Genes structure; replication, transcription, translation and interference

Practical labs (16 hours)
Exercises on the topics covered in the theoretical part

Didactic Unit - Biology and Zoology
The course is structured in two credits of frontal teaching (total 16 hours) and one of training (of which 8 seminars and 8 which involve teaching activities carried out in the laboratory and / or with the help of the virtual histological slides, in repeated groups.

- The organization of living matter: viruses; prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (2 hours)
- The nucleus of the eukaryotic cell (2 hours)
- The cytoplasmic membranous organelles: biological membranes and cellular compartmentalization (structure function of the plasma membrane; endoplasmic reticulum; Golgi; vesicular transport; lysosomes; mitochondria) (8 hours)
- The cytoskeleton and related specializations (cilia and flagella) (2 hours)
- Cellular communication (2 hours)
- The study of cell biology through the microscope: recognition of the structure of cellular components in the tissue context (2 hours of practice)
- The cell cycle: cell division, mitosis and meiosis. Oogenesis and spermatogenesis (6 hours of practice)
- Basic concepts of evolution and natural selection, taxonomy and systematics; introduction to the diversity of the animal world (2 hours of seminars)
- Classification and main characteristics of the main groups of organisms belonging to the kingdom of protists (with particular interest for protists of interest to pets) and to the animal kingdom (6 hours of seminars)
Teaching methods
Didactic Unit - Genetics
Frontal lessons and practice
Didactic Unit - Biology and Zoology
Lectures and classroom seminars and practical activities in the laboratory and microscopy classroom
Teaching Resources
Didactic Unit - Genetics
- Lecture notes available in pdf format
- Genetica animale applicazioni zootecniche e veterinarie G. Pagnacco Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
- Educational material on the ARIEL portal

Didactic Unit - Biology and Zoology
- Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg. Elements of EdiSES Biology
- Solomon, Martin, Martin, Berg. EdiSES Evolution and Biodiversity
The material used in class will be made available through the Ariel University platform, indicating the page of the site concerning the teaching. Further information on recommended texts for in-depth study will be provided during the course and made available through the University platform, Ariel.
CHIM/06 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Santagostini Laura
Genetics, general biology and zoology
BIO/05 - ZOOLOGY - University credits: 0
Practicals: 32 hours
Lessons: 32 hours
1 turno pe tutti gli studenti
Professor: Polli Michele
2 turno per tutti gli studenti
Professor: Lodde Valentina
By appointment (email or phone)
Department of Health, Animal Science and Food Safety (Anatomy building)
By appointment sending an e-mail
Dip. Chimica - Corpo A, Floor -1, Room S022 (B08)