Chimical and pharmacological sciences (first year)

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Understand the chemical nature of fundamental biological phenomena such as nutrition, respiration, energy metabolism and membrane exchanges; Know the elementary principles of general pharmacology and some aspects of the pharmacology of the peripheral system, the skin diseases and the musculoskeletal system.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will know:
· describe and use, with simple calculations, the main quantities and their units of measurement used in chemistry (atomic and molecular mass, mole and molar mass);
· recognize the various types of chemical reactions and to balance their stoichiometric coefficients rationally;
· describe the various ways in which the concentration of a solution can be expressed, the solubility and the factors that influence it;
· explain the concept of the reaction balance and indicate how certain parameters can modify it;
· discuss the concept of acids and bases according to the Broensted-Lowry and buffer solution theory;
· describe the concept of pH of an aqueous solution and calculate it in the case of both strong and weak acids and bases;
· know and discuss some basic concepts of electrochemistry, thermodynamics and chemical kinetics;
· recognize the functional groups that characterize organic compounds, with particular mention to those that are present in the structures of compounds of biological interest, such as amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleotides and nucleic acids.
· know the main metabolic pathways of amino acids, carbohydrates and lipids.

· the fate of drugs in the body:
knowing all the processes of transport, bio-transformation, distribution and elimination /(ADME)
· the action of drugs at the level of organs and systems, considering their mechanism of action at the cellular and molecular level;
· the characteristics of some classes of pharmacological agents that act on the systemic circulation, at the skin level and on the musculoskeletal system that could affect the future professional activity
· the features of some drugs for selected chronic therapies considering some possible effects on the locomotor apparatus
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

For the lessons of the 1st semester the teaching, given the current health situation, will be carried out entirely at a distance.
Course syllabus
Elements of General Chemistry.
-Atomic structure. Atomic number and mass number, ions, isotopes, molecular mass, mole. Periodic table and electronic configuration of atoms.
-The chemical bond: ionic, metallic and covalent. Carbon and its bonds.
-Intermolecular bonds: Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bond.
-Properties of solutions: Concentration of solutions, colligative properties. Osmosis and osmotic pressure.
-Chemical reactions: chemical reactions and their representation. Oxidation number. Oxidation-reduction reactions. Speed of reaction.
-Free energy and spontaneity of reactions. Activation energy. Catalysts. Chemical equilibrium and factors that influence it.
-Acid-base equilibria: Ionic product of water and pH. Acid-base theories of Arrhenius, Broensted-Lowry and Lewis. Strong and weak acids and bases. Salts formation. Buffer solutions. Buffer in the blood.
Elements of Organic Chemistry.
Properties and reactivity of organic compounds: Carbon atom bonds. Nomenclature of organic compounds. Isomers. Functional groups: structure and reactivity. Hydrocarbons. Alcohols, ethers and sulfur analogues. Amines. Alkenes. Aromatic compounds. Carbonyl compounds and their chemical behavior. Carboxylic acids and their derivatives: esters and amides. Polyfunctional compounds
Structure of organic molecules of biological interest.
-Carbohydrates. Classification: monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides. Modified carbohydrates. Glycosidic bond.
-Lipids. Classification. Simple and complex. Fatty acids and their structure. Acylglycerols. Cholesterol. Steroid hormones. Cell membrane lipids.
-Amino acids and proteins. Structure of-amino acids. Amino acids and peptide bond. Peptides and proteins: primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures.
-Nucleosides and nucleotides. Chemical structure. ATP. Nucleic acids.
Metabolism: general characteristics; catabolic and anabolic pathways.
-Enzymes: structural characteristics; action mechanism; Enzyme regulation and mechanism of action.
-Metabolism of proteins: Digestion. Catabolism of amino acids. Urea cycle.
-Metabolism of carbohydrates: Digestion. Glycolysis and Krebs cycle. Gluconeogenesis.
-Lipid metabolism: Digestion. Fatty acid catabolism. Biosynthesis of fatty acids.
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required. The course must be accessible to students from different high schools.
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
the slides used by the teacher during the lessons are available to students through the Ariel site
Maria Valeria Catani, Isabella Savini, Pietro Guerrieri, Luciana Avigliano, Appunti di Biochimica per le Lauree Triennali editore Piccin.
Bibliography for the Pharmacology module
Rossi Cuomo Riccardi
Farmacologia per le Professioni sanitarie
Govoni S
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Di Giulio et al.
Farmacologia generale e speciale. Per le lauree sanitarie
Assessment methods and Criteria
- A written exam consisting of multiple-choice questions (15) and open questions (2).
- The written questions will be evaluated after a comparative reading, and an objective evaluation based on the correctness of the assertions.
- Approved calculator.
The tests are offered at least 6 times for each academic year
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Rota Paola