Clinical Pharmacology and Applied Biochemistry

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/10 BIO/14 MED/03
Learning objectives
The objective of the course to provide the students with the skills to understand how to design and interpret clinical trials with biologicals and biotech drugs; how to integrate information resulting from medical genetics to identify patients who will benefit the most from certain pharmacological treatments or who will be more exposed to side effects; how to use advanced biochemistry methods for research and development of novel bioactive molecules and for the evaluation of their mechanism of action.
Expected learning outcomes
Students attending the course will be able to evaluate clinical trial design and the clinical development phases of a biotechnological drug. Students will be able to understand how to identify the primary and secondary endpoints of a clinical study, to discuss the main aspects related to pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics clinical trials. Moreover they will learn key concepts of pharmacoepidemiology. Finally students will aquire knowledge on the standard operative procedures and the description of the different subjects involved in clinical research and market access in the biotechnological drugs filed
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Clinical pharmacology will provide students with the skills to analyze drugs and their effects, to examine the benefits of biotechnological drugs approved for the treatment of several rare diseases, to discuss the aspects related to pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics as well pharmakokinetics.
It will be discussed how to design a clinical trial as well as how to interpretate the results from clinical trials, including the definition of primary and secondary endpoints. Several aspects associated to genetic experimentation, genetic medicine, pharmaco surveillance and epidemiological medicine will be discussed.
The module of Medical genetics intends to provide students with the fundamental principles of inheritance, the genetic mechanisms underlying Mendelian and non-Mendelian diseases and related genetic tests. Another purpose of the module is to provide a general knowledge of the main methods used in the field of human molecular genetics, through examples of identification of the gene responsible for a genetic disease and examples of cellular and gene therapy.
The purpose of the Applied Biochemistry didactic unit is to provide participants with knowledge and understanding of some of the methodologies useful in clinical and research laboratories that employ biochemical and enzymatic approaches for diagnostic purposes and for the development of drugs and biotechnological products. The practical part will be based on the discussion of multiple choice tests and clinical cases.
Prerequisites for admission
The following prerequisites are required for the applied biochemistry teaching unit: knowledge of genetics, anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, biochemistry and molecular biology.
Teaching methods
Interactive teaching and specific lessons with power point presentations. Mandatory single seat practical training.
Teaching Resources
Adkinson, Brown - Genetica medica, ed. Elsevier
Farmacologia - Principi di base e applicazioni terapeutiche di Rossi, Cuomo, Riccardi. 2019. Editore: Minerva Medica
Critical appraisal of epidemiolgical studies and clinical trials. Elwood M. Oxford University Press 2017
Elisabetta Albi - Biochimica clinica essenziale. 2019 Biochimica Zanichelli
Assessment methods and Criteria
Practical and oral tests on the topics discussed during the course.
Biochimica applicata
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Eberini Ivano
Farmacologia clinica
Single bench laboratory practical: 16 hours
Lessons: 16 hours
Professor: Gomaraschi Monica
Turno 1
Professor: Gomaraschi Monica
Turno 2
Professor: Ossoli Alice Federica
Genetica medica
Lessons: 24 hours
Professor: Caretti Giuseppina
On Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays from 9 to 10 am and on appointment previously taken via Microsoft Teams or email
Microsoft Teams