Comparative philology

A.Y. 2021/2022
9
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
L-LIN/01
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with the tools for the synchronic and diachronic analysis of ancient and modern languages, also with reference to the history of linguistic thought within which the various theoretical and methodological achievements of the discipline are placed.
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge
At the end of the course, the students will know the main orientations in the history of linguistic thought and of linguistic science in Western cultures; they will also know the properties of historical-natural languages with particular reference to the functional and historical dimension. The students will be aware of the relationship between general reflection on language and empirical investigation of individual linguistic facts and will know the boundaries within which heuristic processes such as comparison, reconstruction and etymology are placed; they will also know the technical terminology specific to the discipline with reference to the areas and sectors examined, as well as a series of essential bibliographic tools.

Skills
With reference to more technical and methodological aspects, the students will be able to distinguish between phonetic and graphic data, particularly in the case of the analysis of ancient linguistic forms, and they will be able to recognise and analyse specific synchronic and diachronic facts related to ancient and modern languages, applying rules and categories elaborated by general linguistic reflection; the student will also be able to distinguish the observation and description of empirical data from their interpretation and will use the appropriate metalinguistic terminology in the description of phenomena; finally, the students will be able to apply the historical-comparative method in the comparison of ancient Indo-European languages' forms and in the etymological investigation.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
Lectures are delivered in attendance, in accordance with the standards set by the University, and simultaneously streamed on MS Teams.
Course syllabus
In the first part of the course (Part A) the elements of articulatory phonetics and phonology will be presented together with the basic notions for the description and explanation of linguistic phenomena of morphological, syntactic and lexical order.
Subsequently (Part B), attention will be focused on the historical dimension of the language and on linguistic variation, in particular, as regards linguistic change and linguistic typology.
Finally (Part C), through the examination of fundamental acquisitions in Indo-European linguistics, aspects of the comparative historical method will be illustrated and the notion of linguistic reconstruction will be defined.

IMPORTANT: Humanities students in the "Modern Literature" curriculum who wish to take the 6 cfu examination must follow the syllabus for Parts B and C of the course. The same applies to all students who have already taken an examination in General Linguistics.
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites for admission.
Teaching methods
The teaching is carried out in a lecture format and is designed for the students to acquire the knowledge subject of the discipline.
The following materials will be uploaded to the Ariel website:
1) some slides projected during the lectures and related to topics which are not present in the texts in the bibliography
2) some useful aids for the preparation of the exam (exercises, sheet containing the scheme of the IPA alphabet, etc.)
3) indications of some websites of particular interest for the study of the discipline.
As regards the acquisition of the specific skills being taught, exercises will be carried out in the classroom relating to phonetic transcription of words.
Attendance at the course is strongly recommended.
Teaching Resources
1) ATTENDING students

Part A
- C.A. CIANCAGLINI, A. KEIDAN, Linguistica generale e storica. Per studenti di lingue orientali e classiche, volume I, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2018 (and successive editions).

Part B
- C.A. CIANCAGLINI, A. KEIDAN, Linguistica generale e storica. Per studenti di lingue orientali e classiche, volume II, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2018 (e successive edizioni).
- G. GRAFFI, Breve storia della linguistica, Roma, Carocci, 2019 (and successive editions).

Part C
- P. MILIZIA, Le lingue indoeuropee, Roma, Carocci, 2002 (and successive editions).

2) NON-ATTENDING students

Part A
- C.A. CIANCAGLINI, A. KEIDAN, Linguistica generale e storica. Per studenti di lingue orientali e classiche, volume I, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2018 (and successive editions).

Part B
- C.A. CIANCAGLINI, A. KEIDAN, Linguistica generale e storica. Per studenti di lingue orientali e classiche, volume II, Firenze, Le Monnier, 2018 (and successive editions).
- G. GRAFFI, Breve storia della linguistica, Roma, Carocci, 2019 (and successive editions).
- N. GRANDI, Fondamenti di tipologia linguistica, Nuova edizione, Roma, Carocci, 2014 (and successive reprints).

Part C
- P. MILIZIA, Le lingue indoeuropee, Roma, Carocci, 2002 (and successive editions).
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral test: The oral test consists of an interview on the topics indicated in the programme, aimed at ascertaining the students' knowledge of the contents of the proposed texts and - for the students attending - of the aspects dealt with during the lessons. In addition to the in-depth knowledge of the contents proposed, the students must demonstrate that they are able to apply the knowledge acquired in order to analyse and interpret the linguistic facts submitted to them in an appropriate manner.
The clarity and punctuality of the answers and the precise and correct use of the specialist vocabulary of the discipline will also contribute to the final evaluation.
At the beginning of the test, all students will be asked to make a phonetic transcription of an Italian word chosen by the teacher, using the international phonetic alphabet, and to describe the sounds that compose it from the point of view of their articulatory features.
IMPORTANT: the correct phonetic transcription and phonetic description of the assigned word is a necessary condition (even if not sufficient) to pass the exam. If the student is not able to transcribe the word correctly and/or describe its sounds correctly, their exam will be considered insufficient.
With regard to part C, a further specific task that students may be asked to carry out is the reconstruction of an Indo-European protoform starting from the historical forms in ancient Indo-European languages proposed by the teacher.

The grade is expressed in thirtieths.

International or Erasmus incoming students are kindly requested to contact the teacher of the course.

Students with specific learning disabilities should contact the teacher of the course, in order to discuss alternative examination methods, in agreement with the competent Office.
Unita' didattica A
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica B
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Unita' didattica C
L-LIN/01 - HISTORICAL AND GENERAL LINGUISTICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 20 hours
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)