Electronics laboratory

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide students with theoretical and practical skills in general Electronics. Starting from the operating principles of semiconductor junctions we will study, implement and characterize analog electronic circuits containing diodes and bipolar transistors, such as peak detectors, voltage multipliers, stabilized power supplies, transistor amplifiers.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students will be able to
1. Discuss the working principles of diodes and bipolar transistors.
2. Compute the quiescent point, the small-signal gain, and the bandwidth of single-stage transistor amplifiers.
3. Design and realize transistor amplifiers in common-emitter, common-collector, common-base, cascode, and differential configurations.
4. Analyze, realize, and experimentally characterize a basic three-stage operational amplifier in terms of gain, bandwidth, slew-rate, output voltage swing.
5. Discuss and design current mirrors.
6. Design a stabilized power supply.
7. Design clipping, clamping, peak-detector, charge pump circuits.
8. Discuss the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem and the basics of Sample-and-Hold circuits and Analog-to-Digital converters.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Course syllabus
The course introduces advanced concepts of analog electronics through an intense laboratory activity. Many electronic devices are studied and used including transistors, diodes, trasformers, operational amplifiers. The course is focused on the design techniques of analog circuits, including multi-stage transistor amplifiers and some classes of non-linear circuits. Applications of the studied circuits are shown in the fields of telecommunications, hi-fi audio reproduction, physical and biological signal transduction. The considered topics are:
- Active Devices: Diodes and Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
Highlight on the working principles of semiconductors. P-N junction (diode). Diode as a temperature sensor. N-P-N structure (bipolar transistor). Minority carrier transport in the base. Transistor effect and Ebers-Moll equation. Transistor as a current or voltage amplifier. Small and large signal circuits. Transistor as a switch.
- Non-linear Circuits with Diodes and Transistors
Peak detector. Clamping and DC restorer. Clipping. Voltage multiplier (Cockroft Walton). Diode bridge rectifier. Stabilized power supply. Active rectifiers. Absolute value circuit.
- Transistor Amplifiers
Common emitter configuration. Common collector configuration (emitter follower). Common base configuration. Cascode configuration. Differential amplifier. Current mirrors. A transistor operational amplifier. Miller's theorem and bandwidth of operational amplifiers. Negative-feedback transistor amplifiers. Audio amplifiers.
- Positive-Feedback Transistor Circuits
Schmitt trigger. Astable circuit. Multivibrator. Waveform generators.
- Signal Properties
Delay and rise time (Elmore's theorems).
- A/D and D/A signal conversion (highlights)
Prerequisites for admission
1. Use of laboratory instrumentation (power supply, arbitrary waveform generator, digital multimeter, digital oscilloscope, RCL meter)
2. Linear circuit analysis methods
3. Concept of negative/positive feedback
4. Use of operational amplifiers
5. Frequency response theorem
6. Transfer functions and physical meaning of the poles
7. Impedance concept
8. Use and properties of coaxial cables
Teaching methods
On a lecture by lecture basis, a brief theoretical explanation on a program item is given as followed by a laboratory exercise in which the theory can be experimentally verified.
Teaching Resources
R. C. Jaeger, "Microelectronics", Mc Graw Hill
A. Pullia, "Dispense di laboratorio elettronico", CD-ROM
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of the preparation and presentation of a lab report on one of the subjects elaborated in the course, and of an interview. The interview is focused both on the lab report and on the course program. Every student must prepare his own lab report. In the exam the competences as well as the ability to discuss unknown problems will be evaluated.
FIS/01 - EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICS - University credits: 6
Laboratories: 48 hours
Lessons: 14 hours
Professor: Pullia Alberto
Educational website(s)
By appointment