Feeding behaviour and nutritional status of populations

A.Y. 2021/2022
6
Max ECTS
48
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/05 BIO/07
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course aim to provide the student with the scientific and cultural tools to understand and interpret the feeding behavior of modern humans in the light of their evolutionary history and of related transformations of their relationships with the environment.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, students should have acquired the technical-scientific notions required to understand the effect of alimentary habits on body composition. In addition, the student should have acquired the competencies necessary to understand and to apply the methods for body composition and nutritional state assessment as well as to understand the principles for the elaboration of tailored dietary plans aimed to reach and maintain an ideal body composition.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Lesson period
Second semester
Synchronous telematic teaching via MS Teams. Audio-video records of lectures available in streaming in asynchronous mode through both MS Teams and and Ariel. PowerPoint presentations available through Ariel. The final exam is organized as a written report on a topic proposed by the teacher plus a distance oral examination via MS Teams.
In the case of teaching activity in the presence, it is mandatory to respect all in force safety directions.
Course syllabus
Principles for the analysis of the nutritional needs of a subject and for the formulation of personalized diets. From nutrition to personalized diet: (i) nutritional aspects of alimentation; (ii) notes of history of nutrition; (iii) tools for the nutritional anamnesis. Primary and tertiary prevention: (i) Definition of prevention in populations and in individuals; (ii) Mediterranean diet, vegetarian diets; hyperproteic diets, and novel alimentary vogues and their relationships with the maintenance of health; (iii) Nutritional needs under special physiological conditions: childhood, adolescence, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, old age, sporting; (iv) Prevention and nutritional treatment of malnutrition in elderly, in the disorders of feeding behavior; and in the neoplastic cachexia; (v) Prevention/diet treatment of some functional disorders of the digestive system: reflux, dyspepsia, meteorism, constipation; (vi) Alimentation, prevention and diet treatment of main risk factors (dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome) and related chronic-degenerative diseases (obesity, diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological diseases, chronic bronco-pulmonary diseases); (vii) Alimentation, microbiota and inflammation. Alimentari education: (i) Aims, strategies, Action plans of WHO and other authoritative international institutions (AHA, WCRF, etc) for the prevention and control of non-transmissible diseases; (ii) National Plan for the Prevention and nutritional surveillance system of Italy; (iii) The new foods: from the food industry to the 3D foods. Applied dietetics: (i) Use of plicometry, bioimedentiometry and new-generation apps: (i) The adipometer; (ii) elaboration of alimentary plans for various fisio-pathological needs and use of specific programs: pros and cons; (iii) how to propose a "healthy" cooking.
Models for the description of body composition. Five-level model and patterns of body compartmentation. The reference man. Relationships among compartments at different organization levels. Use of regression analysis in the development of predictive equations. Reference methods in body composition assessment. Direct and indirect methods. Laboratory and field methods. Hydrodensitometry, air plethysmography, hydrometry and dilution methods, dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DEXA). Direct methods for Na and K determination. In vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNA). Bioimpedentiometry and bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA). Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS). Anthropometry and plicometry. Methods for the assessment of energy expenditure. Components of energy expenditure: basal metabolism, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced thermogenesis. Direct calorimetry, and indirect calorimetry methods. Non-calorimetric methods. Doubly labelled water methods. Podometry and accelerometry. Metabolic holters. Methods for the assessment of energy intake. 24-h recall, alimentary diary, and food frequency questionnaire. Energy needs and human evolution. Metabolic adaptation to physical activity.
Prerequisites for admission
A good knowledge of food chemistry, general biochemistry and metabolism, histology, anatomy and general physiology, as well as of the topics covered by the course of Biology of Nutrition is mandatory.
Teaching methods
In the absence of limitations due to social distancing caused by sanitary emergence conditions, the exam is written, consisting in a set of open questions aimed to assess the ability of the student to handle the various topics covered by the course. Students may be asked to solve simple problems. Answers can be provided in English, if wished. Allowed time is usually 2 hours. The exam is organized in two parts that must be accomplished in the same test. Both parts must receive a positive evaluation in order to pass the examination. Partial exams during the teaching semester for students attending the course are not planned.
Teaching Resources
Articles, tables and databanks dealing with food composition. Videoprojected material, scientific papers and other materials will be made partially available through the Ariel portal of the University.
Assessment methods and Criteria
In the absence of limitations due to social distancing caused by sanitary emergence conditions, the final exam is composed in two part. The one on nutritional state is in written form, consisting in a set of open questions aimed to assess the ability of the student to handle the various topics covered by the unit. at request, this can be replaced by an oral examination. Students may be asked to solve simple problems. Answers can be provided in English, if wished. Allowed time is usually 1 hours. The part on feeding behavior is oral. The two parts that must be accomplished in the same test. Both parts must receive a positive evaluation in order to pass the examination. Partial exams during the teaching semester for students attending the course are not planned.
BIO/05 - ZOOLOGY - University credits: 0
BIO/07 - ECOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor(s)
Reception:
Monday, 08:30-12:30 (appointment required)
Dept. Biosciences, via Celoria 26, bldg C - floor 5