General pathology and diagnostics

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/12 MED/04 MED/07 MED/36
Learning objectives
- To acquire the fundamental knowledge of the main methods of diagnostic imaging;
- To acquire the fundamental knowledge of the main methods of use of radiation and to know the current standards of radioprotection;
- To provide students with a general knowledge on the role, purpose, potential of Laboratory Medicine in health protection, disease prevention and monitoring, a general knowledge of the diagnostic pathways and a basics of knowledge to interpret the results of a laboratory examination
- To acquire the knowledge of the main functional aspects of the healthy
subject in developmental age;
- To know the fundamentals of the pathophysiology appropriate to different clinical situations, also in relation to diagnostic parameters;
- To know the causes of diseases in developmental age, as well as the fundamental pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms;
- To know the relationship between microorganisms and host in human infections;
- To know the physiological defense mechanisms of the organism;
To acquire an adequate knowledge of technological and biotechnological development to be applied when taking care of subjects in developmental
Expected learning outcomes
Knowledge and understanding
- biomedical sciences for the understanding of physiological and pathological processes related to the health and illness of the newborn, child, adolescent;
In relation to subjects in developmental age, students will be able to:
a) describe the EU radiation protection standards;
b) relate pathogens with the physiological defense mechanisms in human infections;
c) recognize signs and symptoms of inflammatory diseases;
d) identify the causes and physio-pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the disease;
e) illustrate the specific diagnostic investigations for the various pathological conditions and interpret the results in relation to the reference parameters
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
Being a first year exam, first semester, there are no specific prerequisites different from those required for access to the degree course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Examination method: The assessment of the learning is carried out by means of a written exam (multiple choice questions and open questions) and the final score is given by the mean reported in the 4 different disciplines.
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Course syllabus
· Clinical Biochemistry: introduction, aims, definitions
· Laboratory intervention levels. Types of diagnostic examination
· Blood sample, urine sample
· Other types of biological samples
· Concept of total variability; Biological variability and factors that influence it
· Preparation of the subject / patient
· Pre-analytical variability: sampling, storage, delivery, transport
· Acceptability criteria of a biological sample
· Analytical variability
· Types of errors. Reliability of a dosage method
· Quality controls
· Post-analytical variability: reporting
· Reference values
· The analytical goals and the critical difference
· Diagnostic logic: clinical sensitivity and specificity, predictive values
· Deepening of some topics chosen by the teacher (The role of the Laboratory in myocardial infarction, in diabetes, in liver pathologies, in dyslipidemia ...)
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures
Teaching Resources
A. Gaw et al. Biochimica Clinica, Elsevier Masson, 2014, Terza edizione
Elisabetta Albi,Tommaso Beccari, Samuela Cataldi Biochimica clinica essenziale. Dal laboratorio ai quadri di patologia clinica. Editore: Zanichelli, 2019, 1°edizione
G. Federici Medicina di laboratorio, Milano, Mc Graw Hill, 2014
LW Janson, ME Tischler - Il quadro d'insieme- Biochimica Clinica. Ed. It. Mario Plebani, Piccin, 2015
Materiale presentato a lezione dal docente
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
Cellular pathology (necrosis and apoptosis)
Accumulation pathologies (steatosis, amyloidosis, etc)
Immunology (humoral and cell-mediated) and immunopathology
Acute inflammation (margination e chemotaxis, phagocytosis, inflammation mediators, systemic reactions)
Chronic inflammation
Wound healing and scaring
Cancer (benign or malignant cancer, oncogenes, oncosupressors, metastasis)
Anemias and red blood cells related diseases
Emo-coagulation pathologies
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures
Teaching Resources
J.A.M. Maier. Patologia generale e fisiopatologia per le professioni sanitarie. Ed. McGrew Hill
G.M. Pontieri - Patologia generale e fisiopatologia generale per i corsi di laurea in professioni sanitarie. Ed. Piccin
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Course syllabus
1. Main differences existing between prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms: structure, organization and reproduction - Differences between microorganisms and viruses
2. Microbiota of the human body and composition in the various anatomical sites
3. Mode of transmission (vertical and horizontal) of microorganisms and viruses and importance of vectors
4. Main host-infectious agent interactions: colonization, symbiosis, commensalism, infection and disease - Host factors able to influence the infectious process in relation to developmental age
5. Main characteristics of pathogenicity and virulence of microorganisms
6. Ultrastructure and functions of the different components of the bacterial cell, chemical composition and structure of the cell wall of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, reproduction.
7. Morphology, ultrastructure and function of the components of the fungal cell, sexual and asexual reproduction - Morphology, relationship structures - functions, and reproduction modalities in protozoa
8. Origin, organization and mode of replication of animal viruses - Persistent, slow, latent viral infection
9. Criteria for the collection and transport of biological samples for microbiological diagnosis of the infections with particular reference to the anatomical site and developmental age - Direct and indirect diagnosis of infection
10. Main direct and indirect microbiological investigations - Diagnostic investigations in relation to the phase of infection (previous, acute or chronic) and therapeutic orientation (sensitivity tests to antimicrobial drugs)
11. Mechanism of action of anti-infective drugs and main factors influencing the development of drug-resistance
12. Characteristics of: Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase negative staphylococci, Streptococcus spp, pathogenic neisserie, enterobacteria, spore-forming bacilli, mycobacteria and their involvement in infections by anatomical site and developmental age
13. Main families of viruses and their infective impact in children
14. Morphological, cultural and pathogenic characteristics of the main fungal agents with particular reference to the genera Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus
15. Mention on the main protozoa and helminths of human interest
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures
Teaching Resources
JK. Actor - Microbiologia, Elsevier, Milano
E. Lanciotti - Principi di Microbiologia Clinica, Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Milano
PR Murray et al. - Microbiologia medic, Edra Masson
Diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy
Course syllabus
Phisics: ionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields, corpuscolated ionizing radiation, the production of ionizing radiation, dosimetry.
Radiobiology: the effects of ionizing radiation on matter, general principles. The effects of ionizing radiation on biological organisms. Stochastic effects and dose dependent effects
Radioprotection: the general principles of radioprotection and the related regulations. The role of health physicist. The practical aspects of radioprotection
Diagnostic radiology: the different imaging modalities an their role in the modern diagnostic imaging: conventional radiology, computerized tomography, angiography Interventional radiology. The contrast media and the adverse reaction to contrast media administration.
Nuclear medicine: the principal imaging modalities in Nuclear Medicine: SPECT, PET, and PET CT
Radiotherapy: the linear accelerator and the cyclotron and the different treatment techniques
Magnetic resonance: general principles and potential hazards related to the magnetic fields. Paramagnetic contrast media, indications and side effects
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures
Teaching Resources
Radiobiologia e Radioprotezione di Lentini, Biagini, Gavelli 1999. Consultabile gratuitamente su Google Book
Clinical biochemistry and molecular biology
Lessons: 15 hours
Professor: Paroni Rita Clara
Diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy
MED/36 - IMAGING AND RADIOTHERAPY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 15 hours
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Fenizia Claudio
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Lessons: 15 hours
Professor: Cento Valeria
For contacts please call Mrs Anna Pappalardo 02 55035524, mail: