Health informatics

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course is divided in three modules.
The first module deals with the use of standardized medical search tools, health websites, online social media/networks, and mobile health tools (apps for smartphone and tablets) for medical updating and practice. The purpose of this module is to introduce the student on the emerging web 2.0 and social media technologies and how they are applied to the medical field. In addition, an overview of the use of ICT in medicine will be provided.
The second module deals with Bioinformatics. The purpose of this module is to introduce the student to the complex research area of genomics and high-throughput experiments, which is revolutionising many areas of research in Medicine, from drug discovery to personalized medicine. Biology has become the land of the "-omics", including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, lipidomics, metabolomics, etc. Each of these "-omics" generates a huge amount of high throughput data, and it is a challenge both to analyze these data and to further investigate the function of specific molecules.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the first module the student will be able to perform a search in medical databases through mesh terms and advanced features and will know web 2.0 and social media technologies.
At the end of the second module the student will know how artificial intelligence will shape and change medicine in future and will be able to distinguish between real possibilities from media announcements.
At the end of the third module the student will be able to use Excel for statistical calculations and for performing multiple testing corrections typical of Bioinformatics applications. The student will have a general understanding of the challenges and opportunities coming from high-throughput experiments.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Topic 1: How to use PubMed
Topic 2: How to use Internet and other databases for medical updating and practice
Topic 3: How to use social media for medical updating and practice.
Topic 4: Digital health. Mobile health, telemedicine and ehealth.
Topic 5: Digital therapeutics. What they are, what they are not, how they are developed, how to study them, how to regulate them.

Topic 1: Big Data in the health sector: The need of AI systems to aggregate and interpret heterogeneous data.

Topic 1: Using a Computer for Clinical Data Collection
Topic 2: Excel functions and statistical calculations
Topic 3: Pivot tables in Excel
Prerequisites for admission
To take the Health Informatics exam, students must have already passed all the exams of the first year (Fundamentals of Basic Sciences, Cells Molecules and Genes 1 and 2, Human Body) and the exam of Functions.
To be able to fully understand the contents of the course, students must have a good knowledge of Excel. Suggested material:…
Teaching methods
Synchronous learning: Lectures by the teachers will mainly be used through the course with possible seminars from experts in Bioinformatics and ICT in medicine.
Asynchronous learning: Power point slides with pre-recorded comments. Online videos.

Attendance is required to be allowed to take the exam. Unexcused absence is tolerated up to 34% of the course activities. University policy regarding excused illness is followed.
Teaching Resources
· NCBI. PubMed Help.
· Santoro E, Castelnuovo G, Zoppis I, et al. Social media and mobile applications in chronic disease prevention and management. Front. Psychol., 07 May 2015
· Santoro E. Caldarola P. Villella A. Using Web 2.0 technologies and social media for the cardiologist's education and update. G Ital Cardiol 2011 Mar;12(3):174-81
· Santoro E. Web 2.0 e social media in medicina: come social network, wiki e blog trasformano la comunicazione, l'assistenza e la formazione in sanità". Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore, Roma 2011.
· Santoro E. L'intelligenza artificiale in medicina:quali limiti, quali ostacoli, quali domande. Ecenti Progressi in medicina 2017; 108: 500-502
· Topol E. The creative destruction of medicine. How the digital revolution will create better health care. Basic Books 2011
· Topol E. The Patient Will See You Now: The Future of Medicine Is in Your Hands. Basic Books 2015
· Topol E. Deep Medicine: How Artificial Intelligence Can Make Healthcare Human Again. Basic Books 2019

Additional material, in particular to online content, will be made available during the course.
Assessment methods and Criteria
A written test on the entire programme will be held at the end of the semester using the Moodle platform. The grades are on a scale of 30. The first and the second modules will be evaluated through multiple item questions. For the third module the students will be required to perform a data analysis on a small sample of observations using Excel and answer multiple item questions or numerical questions. Each module will contribute at maximum 10 points.
The exam is deemed to be passed successfully if the final grade is equal to or higher than 18/30.

Registration to the exam through SIFA is mandatory.
INF/01 - INFORMATICS - University credits: 3
Lessons: 36 hours
Professor: Ambrogi Federico
On appointment (email)
Campus Cascina Rosa, Via Vanzetti 5, Milano