Human Anatomy and General Biology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/13 BIO/16
Learning objectives
The teaching of Human Anatomy and General Biology aims to provide students with an overall view of how the peculiarities and basic mechanisms present in eukaryotic cells contribute to the integration of the various cell types in the formation of the different tissues and organs present in the human body. The teaching program of the General Biology module has been designed to present students with the essential concepts for understanding the topics covered in the Human Anatomy module, and the combination of these two teachings provides students with useful and indispensable knowledge for to face and better understand the teachings they will face during the continuation of their training, particularly those of a biological nature, such as Biochemistry, Microbiology, Physiology, Pathology and others.
Expected learning outcomes
After following the teaching of Human Anatomy and General Biology, and having successfully passed the exam, students are expected to have developed the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to the working context in which they will be able to find themselves. The acquired knowledge will enable students to understand the effect of environmental pollutants not only on simple organisms but also on humans and the various organs that make up the human body. The critical view of the whole, acquired by the students, will allow them to critically evaluate the complex and reciprocal interaction that exists between the environment and the human body.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
General Biology
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
The exam is oral and will take in videoconference by using Teams.

Human anatomy
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
The exam is oral and will take in videoconference by using Skype.
Prerequisites for admission
The teaching of General Biology takes place in the first half of the first year, so the basic knowledges of Chemistry and Biology acquired at the secondary school are sufficient. The teaching of Human Anatomy requires the knowledge acquired with the teaching of General Biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written and oral examination with an evaluation expressed in thirtieths. The student will be questioned on: 1)General Biology: oral examination on the structure and function of procariotic and eukaryotic cells ( animal and vegetal); 2) Human anatomy: an hour to answer, in a written way, three questions concerning the basic principles of histology and the general notions of systematic and functional Anatomy.
Overall, preparation will be assessed in all the topics covered during the examination, including the ability to associate with each other the various control mechanisms and correlations between the various processes and systems studied.
General Biology
Course syllabus
Biodiversity and the origin of life. The division into Kingdoms: Bacteria, Archaeans, Protists, Fungi, Plants and Animals. Atoms and chemical bonds. Organic components of the cell - Biological macromolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins) - Cell metabolism, enzymes and biological reactions. Energy and Metabolism. Flow of matter and energy through living organisms. Chemio-autotrophic organisms, photo-autotrophic and Heterotrophic. . An overview of bioenergetics and metabolic compartmentalization. Glycolysis. Mitochondria, structure and functions, aerobic respiration. Composition, structure and role of the membranes. Selective plasma membrane permeability: osmosis, simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport. The internal membrane system. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi Apparatus. Endocytosis and exocytosis. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. The nucleus. Structure of the nuclear envelope and the nuclear pores. DNA as hereditary material. Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes and genes. DNA replication. Transcription and maturation of RNA. Structure of the ribosome. Protein synthesis.. The genetic code. Sorting of proteins in cell compartments. Vesicular traffic. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structure and functions of the cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. The cellular movement. The muscle cell. Extracellular matrix. Cellular adhesion. Cell junctions. Cellular surface and intercellular communication. Membrane and intracellular receptors. Receptor response mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. The cell cycle. Control of the cell cycle.The reproduction of cells and organisms. Mitosis. Apoptosis. Uncontrolled cell proliferation: cancer. Sexual reproduction: meiosis. Gametogenesis, fertilization, early stages of development in animals. The Mendelian model. The inheritance of characters in sexual reproductive organisms. Chromosomal basis of inheritance. Elements of plant biology. Peculiarities of plant cells. The cell wall and the vacuole. Structure and functions of plastids. Chloroplasts and photosynthesis. Plants C3, C4 and CAM. Darwinian concept of evolution. Natural and artificial selection. Methods of cell study. Theoretical-practical aspects of cell cultures. Principles of optical and fluorescence microscopy.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons in classroom with the support of slides. The slides are available to students in the homepage of the teacher at Ariel website (
Teaching Resources
Solomon E.P., Martin C.E., Martin D.W., Berg L.R, Elementi di Biologia, EdiSES, 7a edizione, 2017.
Sadava D., Hillis D. M., Heller HC, Berenbaum M. R., Biologia ( Vol. 1 La cellula, Vol. 2 L'ereditarietà e il genoma, Vol. 3 L'evoluzione e la biodiversità), Zanichelli, 4a edizione, 2014
Alberts B., L'essenziale di biologia molecolare della cellula, Zanichelli , 5a edizione,, 2020
Human Anatomy
Course syllabus
HISTOLOGY Fundamental characters and classification criteria of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues.
GENERAL ANATOMY General principles of human anatomy. Hollow and full organs. TUMBLE APPARATUS General characteristics and structure of the skin - - Cutaneous appendages - hints of receptors
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM General organization - Nerves and ganglia - Relative nerve endings - Spinal nerves - The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system.
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Organization of the nervous system: concept of blood-brain barrier - neuronal chains - synapses - types of sensitivity - macroscopic description of the central nervous system - organization of grey matter and white matter in the spinal cord and in the brainstem - The cerebellum: morphology, cyto-architecture - The diencephalon: morphology, subdivision - The telencephalon: morphology, cytoarchitecture - The cortical areas - the meninges.
CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM General overview of circulation. Organization named circulatory - The heart - The pericardium - Arterial vessels and venous vessels. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM General organization - The nasal cavities - The larynx - The trachea and the bronchi - The lungs - Concept of Pulmonary Lobule - The pulmonary alveoli: Air-Blood barrier - Le pleure.
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM General organization - The oral cavity: tongue, salivary glands - The pharynx - The esophagus - The stomach - The small intestine and the large intestine - The liver - The pancreas - spleen
URINARY SYSTEM General organization - The kidney - Concept of Blood-Urine Barrier - The nephron - Ureter - Bladder - Urethra
ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: General organization - The endocrine hypothalamus - The pituitary and the pituitary portal system - General information on all glands Description of endocrine, adrenal, thymus, thyroid and pancreas structures.
MALE GENITAL APPARATUS General Organization - Sperm Pathways - The glands attached to the male genital system. Spermatogenesis
FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM General organization - The female genital tract and annexed glands - The ovarian cycle and ovogenesis
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons in the classroom.
Teaching Resources
M. T. Conconi, C. Rumio. Principi di Anatomia Microscopica con cenni di Istologia e Anatomia Macroscopica, EDISES.
General Biology
BIO/13 - EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY - University credits: 8
Lessons: 64 hours
Human Anatomy
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 32 hours
Professor: Borsello Tiziana