Human functional biology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/16 BIO/17
Learning objectives
To provide the basic elements of human anatomy (both macroscopic and microscopic) and cell Biology in order to understand the biology and function of the human body, adaptation to the environment, alterations due to aging and the " Interaction with the environment itself. In the course of the course some aspects will be investigated with reference to functional, cellular and evolutionary aspects. Some aspects of relationship between body and environment will be discussed, recalling some of the structural and functional alterations resulting from aging and the interaction between man and the environment.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will know the functional features of the human organs, and of the immune system.
He/she will be able to grasp the functional meaning in relationship with evolution, physiology and pathology.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Classes will be held online via Zoom, synchronously or asynchronously. There will be nline sessions dedicated to student questions. Recorded lessons will be made available on Ariel. Written exams will be carried out using an on line platform with "multiple choice" or "complete the text" question.
Course syllabus
Locomotor system: Structure and organization of cartilage and bone tissue. Architecture and classification of bones, muscles and joints. Ossification mechanisms. Histiogenesis of skeletal muscle. Structure and organization of the skeletal muscle system (skull, spine, rib cage, pelvis and limbs).

Respiratory system: Structure, organization and function of the respiratory system.

Introduction to the digestive system with particular reference to the anatomy and function of the liver and pancreas.

Integumentary system: The human body as a barrier to the environment, the skin. Melanocytes and UV damage. From anatomy to function. The epithelial barrier and its rupture. The skin in the water balance.

Introduction to the cardiovascular system: development of structural and functional alterations of the cardiovascular system in the modern age (e.g. arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis).

Introduction to the anatomy of the immune system and the evolutionary meaning of T cells. Recognition of self and modulation of the immune response during life in autoimmune processes and in cancer. Anatomo-functional interaction between symbiotic bacteria and the immune system.

Nervous system: references to the structural organization of the central and peripheral nervous system. The modification of the nervous system in life: aging and adolescence, and adaptation of the apparatuses.
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge in cytology and histology is important.
Teaching methods
Teaching method based on interactive frontal lessons supported by projected material. Students will be stimulated to actively participate in the lesson / discussion to improve their critical skills, analyzing the literature and communicating the concepts appropriately. Attendance: strongly recommended.
Teaching Resources
Copies of projected materials will be available in Ariel along with a selection of proposed articles. Online informations on textbooks will be made available.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam for this part (3 CFU) consists of a written module with three open questions and 15 scientific terms to be defined. During the course the student will be guided to the appropriate resolution of the test. The evaluation criteria are based on the verification of the skills acquired, the reasoning ability and the clarity of the presentation. The written exam lasts 1 hour.
BIO/16 - HUMAN ANATOMY - University credits: 0
BIO/17 - HISTOLOGY - University credits: 0
Lessons: 48 hours
Educational website(s)
Monday 10.00-18.00 (by appointment)
Department of Biosciences, Via Celoria 26, 20133 Milan.