Infectious Diseases

A.Y. 2021/2022
5
Max ECTS
60
Overall hours
SSD
MED/17
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The main objective of the Infectious Diseases course is to develop the knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical presentation and diagnostic methods associated with the more frequently encountered infectious diseases. Moreover , it will be provided to the student the knowledge about the general principles of antimicrobial chemotherapy with regard to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance. Frontal lessons will be coupled with practical activity aiming, at the end of the course, to give to the student the ability to correctly made the right modality of isolation in order to prevent the spread of infective agents, to gather the infectious diseases clinical history, to be able to recognize the main clinical signs and symptoms of different infectious diseases and to understand the use of direct and indirect methods of diagnosis.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the learning process the student must be able to know the modes of transmission, the incubation period and the clinical presentation of infectious diseases with systemic, pulmonary, central nervous system , skin and genital involvement. Moreover, he/she must be competent with the acquisition of any informations regarding possible infectious risk exposure (travels, migration, risk behaviour , previous immunization, exposure to patients with infectious diseases). Other aquainted skills are about the correct interpretation of microbiology exams (blood and urine cultures, cerebrospinal fluid -either chemistry and culture, serology) and radiology (chest X-ray, Computerized scan and magnetic resonance of different organs) aiming to diagnose infectious diseases. All the above mentioned knowledge will be instrumental in making a correct diagnosis and to implement the disease-control strategies.
The critical and judgmental skills will be stimulated through the discussion of clinical case reports and by the reading of scientific articles dealing with diagnosis and therapy of infectious diseases under the guide of the reference teacher.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Exanthematical infections- Epidemiology- Etiology- Pathogenesis and clinical (typical course and complications)- Therapeutic possibilities- Active and passive prophylaxisthe following rash diseases: measles, rubella, infectious megaloerythema, critical rash, scarlet fever, chickenpox and other vesicular rashesRespiratory tract infections- Infectious respiratory syndromes:- Diphtheria- Pharyngitis / tonsillitis- Epiglottis/laryngitis/tracheitis- Acute bronchitis and relapse of chronic bronchitis- Bronchiolitis- Viral pneumonia- Bacterial pneumonia- Influenza- Pulmonary tuberculosis (and extrapulmonary forms)- PertussisLiver and biliary tract infections- Epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis- Diagnosis of acute and chronic viral hepatitis- Treatment of viral hepatitis- Yellow fever- Leptospirosis- Hydatidosis- Biliary tract infectionsInfections of the digestive system: infectious diarrhoea- Aetiological and pathophysiological classification- Food poisoning (staphylococcal, botulism, C. perfrigens, V. parahaemoliticus, B. cereus)- Viral Gastroenteritis (Norwalk, Rotavirus, other viruses involved)- Bacterial gastroenteritis (Cholera, E.coli, minor salmonellosis, Shigella, Campylobacter, C. difficile)- Protozoan diarrhea (gardening, amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis)- Helminth diarrhea (tapeworm, oxyuriasis, ascaridiases)Tropical Diseases- Epidemiology of tropical diseases: what are the 6 deadly killers?- Malaria- Epidemiology- Life cycle- Pathogenesis- Typical and atypical presentation- Complications and prognosis- Diagnosis- Differential diagnosis between plasmids- Principles of therapy and prophylaxis- Schistosomiasis- Epidemiology- Life cycle- Clinical: acute form, chronic forms- Diagnosis- Therapy- Control measuresInfections transmitted by arthropods- Dengue- West-Nile fever- Zika virus- Chikungunya- Viral haemorrhagic fevers- Rickettsiosis rash and ehrlichiosisSystemic infections- Infectious mononucleosis and CMV infection- Brucellosis- Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis- Lyme Diseases- Toxoplasmosis- Atypical mycobacteriosisSepsis and septic shock- Etiology and epidemiology- Pathophysiology and pathogenesis- Clinical overview- Microbiological diagnosis- The antibiotic and supportive therapeutic approachHIV infection- History- Epidemiology- Vital click of HIV- Natural history of infection- Immunopathogenesis- Main opportunistic manifestations, divided by apparatus- Diagnosis of acute and chronic infectionImmunocompromised host infections- Infections in the solid organ transplant patient- Infections in the bone marrow transplant patient- Infections in the patient with neoplasia- Splenectomized patient infections- Infections in the diabetic patient- Infections in the alcoholic patient- Infections in the injecting drug patientInfections of the soft tissue and musculoskeletal system- Cellulitis and soft tissue infections, in particular:- Erisipela- Gaseous gangrene- Necrotizing fasciitis- Primitive septic arthritis and on synthetic media- Primitive and Synthetic Osteomyelitis- SponsoredilodiscitiInfections of the cardiovascular system- Infectious endocarditis- Etiology- Clinical manifestations and complications- Diagnosis (Dukes criteria)- Principles of therapy and prophylaxis- Myocarditis and infectious pericarditis- Clinical manifestations and complications- Principles of diagnosisUrinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases- Cystitis- Pyelonephritis- Syphilis- Gonorrhoea- Chlamydia and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)- Trichomonas- Gardnerella- Lymphogranuloma venereumNervous system infections- Meningiti- Etiology- Pathogenesis- Clinical events- Diagnosis (clinical and laboratory, with particular emphasis on CSF analysis)- Principles of therapy- Encephalitis and encephalomyelitis- General pathogenesis- Clinical events- Diagnostic evaluation- Main aetiological agents and their clinical features- HSV and VZV- CMV- Enterovirus- anger- Bacterial toxin-mediated neurasthysts- Cerebral abscess and subdural empyema
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required
Teaching methods
Formal teaching
Teaching Resources
Malattie Infettive" di Moroni, Esposito, Antinori"Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases" Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam
MED/17 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES - University credits: 5
Lessons: 60 hours