Medicinal Chemistry 1

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course aims to provide the student with:
a) the knowledge that underlies the design and development of new active ingredients having the necessary requisites to be able to become drug candidates;
b) a good knowledge of the properties, the mechanisms of action and the use of the different classes of drugs treated;
c) the fundamental knowledge on the structure-activity relationships for the purpose of a more rational design aimed at a therapeutic effect free from contraindications and toxic effects;
d) indications concerning the synthetic methods used for the preparation of some of the drugs considered.
Expected learning outcomes
The student must demonstrate to have acquired what is foreseen by the educational objectives.
In particular, the student must demonstrate that he / she has acquired and understood:
a) the basic concepts of Medicinal Chemistry and the fundamental elements of drug design;
b) the notions provided on the chemical, chemical-physical, structural properties and on the mechanism of action of the drugs belonging to the therapeutic classes considered and the main synthetic strategies that can be used for the preparation of drugs.
Course syllabus and organization

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Lesson period
Teaching methods
The lessons will be held in the classroom if the situation allows it. Each lesson will be recorded and made available synchronously (Microsoft Teams) asynchronously (Ariel web site). Alternatively, if the situation worsens, remoted lessons will be only delivered according to the scheduled time.

Program and reference material
The program and the reference material of the lectures will not change. All the didactic material will always be made available through the Ariel platform.

Learning verification and assessment criteria
If the situation allows it, the intermediate and final exams will take place in written form according to the methods indicated in the "Modalità di esame" section. Alternatively, the intermediate tests and the full exams will take place orally using Skype or similar platform. In this case, the duration of the test will be approximately 20-30 minutes and will mainly concern the assessment of the student's ability to apply the acquired notions to medicinal chemistry problems.
Course syllabus
The syllabus is divided into two main parts: general and systematic parts.

General part:
Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry:
- Discovery and development of new drugs
- Molecular mechanisms of drug action
- Molecular targets of drugs
Drug design and development:
- Sources of research for lead compounds
- New "Drug design" strategies
- Structure-activity relationships (SAR).
- Pharmacophore research.
- Isosteria and bioisosteria
- Chemical-physical and biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and pharmacokinetics
- Prodrugs (prodrugs)
- Quantitative Relationships Structure-Activity (QSAR)

Systematic part:
- Antiseptics and disinfectants
- Synthetic antibacterials
- Antibiotics
- Antimycobacterial drugs
- Antiparasitic drugs
- Antimalarial drugs
- Anthelmintic drugs
- Antifungal drugs
- Antiviral drugs
- Anticancer drugs
- Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones and related drugs
- Steroid hormones (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, estrogens, progestins and androgens) and related drugs
- Thyroid hormones and related drugs
- Hypoglycemic drugs
Prerequisites for admission
In order to address the topics of the course, the student should have a good knowledge of organic chemistry, biological chemistry and a basic knowledge of physiology.
In addition to the prerequisites set out in the course study plan, the student should pass the Organic Chemistry II exam before this, in order to better understand the synthetic topics.
Teaching methods
The course includes lectures during which the syllabus topics are explained.
Teaching Resources
Recommended books:

Graham L. Patrick
Chimica Farmaceutica
EdiSES, Napoli

Thomas L. Lemke, David A. Williams
Foye's Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica
PICCIN, Padova

Alberto Gasco, Fulvio Gualtieri, Carlo Melchiorre
Chimica Farmaceutica - Seconda edizione
Zanichelli, Bologna

Supporting material:
Avaialble in digital format by download from Ariel site.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The final exam consists of a written test with questions on all the topics of the course. The student must demonstrate that he has understood the fundamental concepts of each topic and is able to apply them.
Moreover, the attending students have the possibility of taking the exam with two intermediate written tests (end of January and June) concerning, respectively, the programs of the first and second semesters. Only the students passing the first test can access to the second one. If one of the two tests is not passed, the students must take the full exam (see above) or wait for the next academic year when the new intermediate test will be available.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours

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Lesson period
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation
Course syllabus
The programme is divided into two parts: general and systematic parts.
General part
Medicinal Chemistry within chemical and biological disciplines.
Phase I and II Metabolism.
Drug-receptor/drug-enzyme interactions' nature.
Molecular properties conditioning biological activity: optical, geometric and conformational properties; Isosterism, bioisosterism, pharmacophore and prodrugs concepts
Chemical-physical constants used in structure-activity-relations.
Toppliss sequential method and Hansch approach correlation between chemical and biological data.
Drug development: from research to industrial production.
Industrial production of antibiotics by fermentation.
Systematic part:
Chemotherapeutic agents; Antibiotics; antimycobacterial drugs; antimycotic drugs; antiprotozoal drugs; antiviral agents; Antineoplastic drugs;
Corticosteroids; Hormones; Antidiabetic agents; Vitamins.
Prerequisites for admission
The mandatory requirement to face and pass the exam is the knowledge of General Chemistry and, above all, a good fluency in Organic Chemistry.
Therefore, in addition to the prerequisites provided by the course study plan, it would be advisable to pass also the Organic Chemistry II exam, in order to better understand the addressed synthetic topics.
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
All information about the program and educational materials (slide) is present on the teacher's ARIEL website.
Recommended Books:
Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's PICCIN 2014
Chimica Farmaceutica - Patrick EDISES 2015
Chimica Farmaceutica - Wilson & Gisvold CEA 2014
Chimica Farmaceutica I processi di scoperta dei farmaci - Stevens PICCIN 2015
Principi di chimica farmaceutica - Foye's l'essenziale PICCIN 2017
Assessment methods and Criteria
The learning assessment includes a first written test and the subsequent oral test.
Written Test - it is just preparatory and it is necessary to ensure that the student has enough knowledge and fluency in the covered topics. It consists of the treatise of four to five topics relating to the design, mechanism of action, structure-activity relationships and synthesis of drugs/ classes of drugs reported in the programme. The test duration is of two hours.
Oral test - this test takes normally place after 10/15 days and it is sequential to the passing of the written test. The evaluation is positive if the student shows a discrete knowledge of the fundamental aspects of all the topics covered. It consists of the initial discussing of the written test and in the further treatment of other arguments of the course. The evaluation, expressed in thirtieths, considers the outcome of the written test and, above all, the critical dissertation of the topics covered during the oral test.
If the candidate do not pass the oral test, he will have to undergo again the written.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours
Professor: Valoti Ermanno