Medicinal Chemistry 2

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The most important learning objective of the course is to transmit a rational approach to understanding the activity of drugs and their design.
The participants at the end of the course will be able to understand the relationships that link the chemical structure of a drug to its pharmacological activity through the study of the physico-chemical and stereo-electronic properties, and of the mechanism of action.
The aim of the course is also the study of the main chemical-pharmaceutical strategies useful for the optimization of the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.
In particular, starting from the knowledge acquired in the course of Medicinal and Toxicological Chemistry 1, the course deals with the study of drugs active on the central and peripheral nervous system, cardiovascular agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, antiulcer and lipid-lowering drugs.
Expected learning outcomes
By the end of the course, students will have to know, for the different classes of drugs studied, how the prototype was discovered and the main steps through which the class was developed. Therefore, starting from the structure of a model compound, students should know how the structure can be modified in order to increase its activity and selectivity, optimize the pharmacokinetic properties and decrease toxicity. For each molecule studied, students should also be able to frame it correctly from the point of view of therapeutic application and mechanism of action, identify the essential pharmacophore and its mode of interaction with the target, if known, and they should be able to comment the structure-activity relationships.
Course syllabus and organization

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Lesson period
More specific information on the delivery modes of training acivities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Discovery, design and development, structure-activity relationship and study of the mechanism of action at the molecular level of the following classes of drugs:
-Cholinergic, anticholinergic and anticholinesterase drugs
-Drugs acting at the adrenergic syshtem
-Anxyolitic and hypnotic drugs
-Anticonvulsant drugs
-Antidepressant drugs
-Opioid analgesics
-Antipsychotic drugs
-AntiParkinson drugs
-Antimigraine and antiemetic drugs
-Local anesthetics
-Cardiac stimulants
-Drugs used in the treatment of angina
-Antihypertensive drugs
-Lipid lowering drugs
-Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
-Anti-allergic drugs
-Anti-ulcer drugs
Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of the general topics studied in the course "Medicinal and Toxicological Chemistry 1"
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons
Teaching Resources
-Power point presentations of the lessons, in pdf file, available on Ariel
-Suggested text-books:
a) G. L. Patrick: "Chimica Farmaceutica", Edizione integrata a cura di Gabriele Costantino, EdiSES, ultima edizione italiana.
b) Gasco, Gualtieri, Melchiorre: "Chimica Farmaceutica" Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, ultima edizione.
Assessment methods and Criteria
a) The exam is a written test (2 hour time limit) including five questions. At least three of the five questions require the examination of the structure (provided to the student) of a given drug. The student is required to discuss the mode of action, the therapeutic application, the structure-activity relationships and the chemico-physical properties relevant for the biological activity. The remaining questions focus on specific classes of drugs, of which the student must report the general structure, the medicinal chemistry strategies used to develop that class of drugs, the therapeutic use and the main structure-activity relationships. For some molecules, the synthetic approach may be required. In order to pass the written test, the student must sufficiently answer at least four of the five questions. The vote of the written test is in any case the result of an overall evaluation of the paper.
b) Alternatively, the students can take two partial tests, one in February and one in June. Each test will consist of a written test (90 minutes time limit) comprising four questions. In order to pass the same student must receive a sufficient assessment in both tests. The result obtained in the first test will be notified before the second test is held. The final score is given by the mathematical average of the grades assigned in the two tests.
In order to be admitted to the exam it is necessary to have passed the exam of Medicinal and Toxicological Chemistry 1.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours
Professor: Conti Paola

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Lesson period
Didactic methods
The lessons will be held on the Microsoft Teams platform and can be followed both synchronously based on the schedule and asynchronously because they will be recorded and left available to students on the Ariel platform.

Program and reference material
The program and reference material will not be affected.

Methods for verifying learning and evaluation criteria
Ongoing tests:
The ongoing tests will take place remotely, in written form through the (SEB) platform with surveillance through Teams. The content of the ongoing tests will not undergo any changes and will take place with the same timing and methods as the "non-emergency" ongoing tests.

Total examination:
The total exam always consists of two tests, one written and one oral, both will be held at a distance. The written through the (SEB) platform with surveillance through Teams, the oral through the Teams platform.
The verification methods are the same as the "non-emergency" verification methods
Course syllabus
The program is focused on the study of drugs that act the following levels:
a) Parasympathetic neurotransmission: nicotinic and muscarinic agonists and antagonists, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
b) Sympathetic neurotransmission: adrenergic receptors agonists and antagonists, MAO and COMT inhibitors.
c) Cardio-circulatory system: cardiac glycosides, antianginal, antiarrhythmic, calcium channel blockers, potassium channel activators, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin antagonists, renin inhibitors, diuretics, lipid-lowering agents, antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants.
d) Respiratory, and gastric systems: anti-allergy, anti-ulcer, anti-asthma and hypoglycemic drugs.
e) Inflammation: Nonsteroidal (NSAIDs) and steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
f) Central nervous system: anesthetic, anxiolytic and hypnotic-sedative, anticonvulsant, antiparkinson, opioid analgesics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, stimulants and related substances of abuse.

Particular emphasis will be given to the study of:
a) Mechanisms of action of drugs: study of biomolecular processes involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, second messengers; study of structural characteristics (stereo-electronic requirements, topology, topography, conformational equilibria) of drugs (ligands) for the interaction with the main molecular targets (receptors, enzymes, ion channels).
b) Discovery and development of drugs: structural modifications of biologically active natural compounds; effect of the variation of molecular portions of lead compounds on affinity-activity-selectivity-bioavailability profiles.
Prerequisites for admission
The course of Medicinal and toxicological chemistry 2 is the context in which the knowledge previously acquired in the courses of general and inorganic chemistry and, above all, of organic chemistry, biochemistry and medicinal and toxicological chemistry 1 are applied to the study of the drugs' mechanism of action and development.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with diapo projection
Teaching Resources
a) Gasco, Gualtieri, Melchiorre: "Chimica Farmaceutica" Casa Editrice Ambrosiana, Last Edition.
b) T. L. Lemke, D. A. Williams: "Foye's Principi di Chimica Farmaceutica", Piccin Ed., last edition.
c) G. L. Patrick: "Introduzione alla Chimica Farmaceutica", EdiSES, last edition.
d) "Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics", McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division, last edition
e) Slides available from:
Assessment methods and Criteria
Students have seven exam sessions available each academic year. Students can present themselves to all exam sessions (there is no jump of session). On request it is possible to open extraordinary sessions reserved for students who are out of course or repeating.
The overall exam consists of a written test which, if judged sufficient, is followed by an oral test.
The written test, lasting 120 minutes, to be carried out without the help of notes or books, consists of 4 questions of equal weight for the calculation of the score out of thirty.
The questions focus on the discussion of the structure-activity relationships, of the interactions with specific targets and of the physico-chemical properties of the drugs treated in the program; questions include writing the drug structure.
After the correction of the written exams, which takes place within one week, the student is summoned for the oral exam. This consists of:
- a review of the written test in which the student is informed about the results of the correction.
- two questions relating to the whole program, aimed at ascertaining the ability to critically expose and argue the knowledge acquired.
The written test and the oral test have equal weight on the final grade.
As an alternative to the overall exam, students have the opportunity to take two in itinere tests lasting 120 minutes each in written form, respectively in February and July.
Each in itinere test includes 4 questions of a general nature. Passing both tests corresponds to passing the overall exam.
CHIM/08 - PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY - University credits: 10
Lessons: 80 hours
Professor: Romeo Sergio
Monday 10:30-12:30, by appointment via email
Via Mangiagalli 25, second floor, office 2062