Metabolic and Functional Biochemistry

A.Y. 2021/2022
8
Max ECTS
72
Overall hours
SSD
BIO/10
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The course provides knowledge relating to the biochemical-molecular principles at the base of the main vital processes of the cells and of the human being in its totality. In particular, the course is focused on the main metabolic pathways that simple and complex biomolecules of greatest relevance to the human being can undergo, and on the allosteric and hormonal mechanisms that allow their regulation. Particular attention is to the tissue/organ specific regulation, to metabolic relationships in and among organs in physiological and pathological conditions, and to metabolic functions and requirements of vitamins.
The aim of exercises in the classroom is to deepen the meaning and the interactions among organs of biochemical processes on human health, with further indications about the endocrine-metabolic structures that are established in conditions post-prandial, fasting and in some of the most common pathological states, including diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome.
At the end of the course the most common self-analyses that can be performed in the pharmacy in the context of the Pharmacy of Services are described, framing and placing their analytic value in relation to metabolic and functional biochemistry.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course of Metabolic and Functional Biochemistry, the student will have knowledge of the main metabolic pathways of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides, on their specific tissue/organ regulation and on the need for metabolic relationships in and among organs to keep the human being in a healthy state. Moreover, with the knowledge developed with this course, the student will have become familiar with the aberrant biochemistry of some of the most common pathologies, and will have developed a critical awareness that can be useful for the pharmacist's profession, including the activities that he can perform in analytical services of first instance for the prevention and follow-up of more widespread diseases.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea AL

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Carbohydrate metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Glucose metabolism: aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis; Krebs cycle
Chemical reactions and regulation; catabolic and anabolic functions; anaplerotic reactions.
Pentose phosphate shunt; glycogenosynthesis and glycogenolysis; gluconeogenesis.
Fructose (fructolysis) and galactose metabolism.
Other metabolic fates of glucose: synthesis of glucuronic acid, lactose and polyol via.
Interconversion pathway of sugars, synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins (outline).

Lipid metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Fatty acid biosynthesis. Elongation and desaturation reactions. Triglyceride metabolism. Oxidation of fatty acids (mitochondrial, peroxisomal and microsomal). Ketogenesis.
Non-energy fatty acid destinies: biosynthesis of membrane lipids (glycerolphospholipids, sphingulfospholipids and sphingoglycolipids). Synthesis and functions of eicosanoids and endocannabinoids (outline).
Biosynthesis and metabolic fate of cholesterol: metabolism of acids and bile salts and steroid hormones.
Biosynthesis and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL).

Amino acid metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Removal reactions of the amino group (transamination and oxidative and non-oxidative deamination) and of ammoniacation (reduction amination, amidation and carbamoylphosphate synthesis).
Circulation transport and elimination of ammonia: urea cycle and glutamine metabolism in the kidney
Biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids (essential and non-essential amino acids, glucogenetics and / or ketogenetics; donor amino acids of monocarboniose units).
Main anabolic fates of amino acids: synthesis and functions of carnitine, creatine, S-adenosyl-methionine, taurine, glutathione, nitric oxide, biogenic amines and polyamines.

Metabolism of nitrogenous bases and nucleotides
Chemical reactions and regulation of de novo biosynthesis and recovery pathways. Nucleotide catabolism.

Vitamins
Nutritional sources, structure, metabolism and functions of water-soluble vitamins [lipoic acid, pantothenic acid, thiamine (vit. B1), pyridoxine (vit. B6), biotin (vit. H); folic acid (vit. B9); cobalamin (vit. B12)].
Nutritional sources, structure, metabolism and function of liposoluble vitamins (vit. A, vit. D, vit. E and vit. K).

Oxygen free radicals (ROS) and antioxidant defenses
Origin of radical species and mechanisms of damage to cellular structures. Enzymatic defense systems against oxidative stress; vitamin E, vitamin C and natural antioxidants.

Hormones and receptors
Classification, biosynthesis, plasma transport, target tissues and metabolic effects of anterior and posterior pituitary hormones; pancreatic hormones; adrenal hormones; sex hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestins); thyroid hormones; parathyroid hormones.
Signal transduction and intracellular messengers (cAMP, cGMP, inositol triphosphate, Ca2 +).

Organ biochemistry
The liver and its metabolic activities
Glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism.
Detoxification reactions: oxidations, hydroxylations, reductions, conjugations and cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme systems.
Haem metabolism: biosynthesis and catabolism.
Ethanol metabolism.

Muscle and its metabolic activities
Glucid, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Purine nucleotide cycle. Alanine cycle. Cycle of Choirs.
Classification of muscle fibers and energy metabolism of white and red fibers. ATP synthesis systems (creatine kinase and myokinase). Energy metabolism of muscle at rest and during exercise.

Adipose tissue and its metabolic activities
Metabolic characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

Nervous tissue and its metabolic activities
Glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Metabolic utilization of branched chain amino acids. Synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters.

Erythrocyte and its metabolic activities
Anaerobic glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, pathway to purine bases. Oxidative damage and protection systems against oxidative stress.

Metabolic interrelationships between organs in post-prandial and fasting (physiological and prolonged) states

Dismetabolic aspects of diabetes mellitus

The Pharmacy of Services: biochemical-clinical aspects of self-diagnosis tests of first instance
Prerequisites for admission
The course is aimed at students who have acquired the elements provided by the General Biochemistry course and notions of organic chemistry. In particular, the student must know the structural, chemical and physical properties of the main organic biomolecules (with both simple and macromolecular structure) of specific relevance for the human organism, as well as their functions. The knowledge of the elements of kinetics and thermodynamics of chemical processes is also a prerequisite for the full understanding of the chemical reactions that make up the metabolic pathways and their regulation at both cellular and organ level.
Teaching methods
Lectures
1 CFU of exercises to be carried out in the classroom
Teaching Resources
PPT lessons on the site https://ariel.unimi.it/
- D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, "I Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger", Zanichelli, 7°ed., 2018
- N. Siliprandi, G. Tettamanti, "Biochimica Applicata Medica", Piccin, 5°ed., 2018
- T.M.Devlin, "Biochimica con aspetti clinico-farmaceutici", EdiSES, 5° ed., 2013
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of an oral test, which includes the treatment of:
- a metabolic pathway and its regulation
- a vitamin
- a hormone
- the metabolism of an organ.
The exam is considered passed when the student demonstrates knowledge of the required topics.
The criterion for assigning the mark is established on the basis of the level reached by the student to expose his knowledge with appropriate terminology and to correlate the various topics with each other.
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 8
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Rizzo Angela Maria

Linea MZ

Responsible
Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/2022 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Course syllabus
Krebs cycle
Chemical reactions and regulation; catabolic and anabolic functions; anaplerotic reactions.

Carbohydrate metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Glucose metabolism: aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis; pentose phosphate shunt; glycogenosynthesis and glycogenolysis; gluconeogenesis.
Fructose (fructolysis) and galactose metabolism.
Other metabolic fates of glucose: synthesis of glucuronic acid, lactose and polyol via.
Interconversion pathway of sugars, synthesis of glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins (outline).

Lipid metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Fatty acid biosynthesis. Elongation and desaturation reactions. Triglyceride metabolism. Oxidation of fatty acids (mitochondrial, peroxisomal and microsomal). Ketogenesis.
Non-energy fatty acid destinies: biosynthesis of membrane lipids (glycerolphospholipids, sphingulfospholipids and sphingoglycolipids). Synthesis and functions of eicosanoids and endocannabinoids (outline).
Biosynthesis and metabolic fate of cholesterol: metabolism of acids and bile salts and steroid hormones.
Biosynthesis and intravascular metabolism of lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL).

Amino acid metabolism (chemical reactions, regulation and functions)
Removal reactions of the amino group (transamination and oxidative and non-oxidative deamination) and of ammoniacation (reduction amination, amidation and carbamoylphosphate synthesis).
Circulation transport and elimination of ammonia: urea cycle and glutamine metabolism in the kidney
Biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids (essential and non-essential amino acids, glucogenetics and / or ketogenetics; donor amino acids of monocarboniose units).
Main anabolic fates of amino acids: synthesis and functions of carnitine, creatine, S-adenosyl-methionine, taurine, glutathione, nitric oxide, biogenic amines and polyamines.

Metabolism of nitrogenous bases and nucleotides
Chemical reactions and regulation of de novo biosynthesis and recovery pathways. Nucleotide catabolism.

Vitamins
Nutritional sources, structure, metabolism and functions of water-soluble vitamins [lipoic acid, pantothenic acid, thiamine (vit. B1), pyridoxine (vit. B6), biotin (vit. H); folic acid (vit. B9); cobalamin (vit. B12)].
Nutritional sources, structure, metabolism and function of liposoluble vitamins (vit. A, vit. D, vit. E and vit. K).

Oxygen free radicals (ROS) and antioxidant defenses
Origin of radical species and mechanisms of damage to cellular structures. Enzymatic defense systems against oxidative stress; vitamin E, vitamin C and natural antioxidants.

Hormones and receptors
Classification, biosynthesis, plasma transport, target tissues and metabolic effects of anterior and posterior pituitary hormones; pancreatic hormones; adrenal hormones; sex hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestins); thyroid hormones; parathyroid hormones.
Signal transduction and intracellular messengers (cAMP, cGMP, inositol triphosphate, Ca2 +).

Organ biochemistry
The liver and its metabolic activities
Glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism.
Detoxification reactions: oxidations, hydroxylations, reductions, conjugations and cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme systems.
Haem metabolism: biosynthesis and catabolism. Functions and metabolism of iron.
Ethanol metabolism.

Muscle and its metabolic activities
Glucid, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Purine nucleotide cycle. Alanine cycle. Cycle of Choirs.
Classification of muscle fibers and energy metabolism of white and red fibers. ATP synthesis systems (creatine kinase and myokinase). Energy metabolism of muscle at rest and during exercise.

Adipose tissue and its metabolic activities
Metabolic characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue.

Nervous tissue and its metabolic activities
Glucose, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Metabolic utilization of branched chain amino acids. Synthesis and degradation of neurotransmitters.

Erythrocyte and its metabolic activities
Anaerobic glycolysis, pentose phosphate shunt, pathway to purine bases. Oxidative damage and protection systems against oxidative stress.

Metabolic interrelationships between organs in post-prandial and fasting (physiological and prolonged) states

Dismetabolic aspects of diabetes mellitus

The Pharmacy of Services: biochemical-clinical aspects of self-diagnosis tests of first instance
Prerequisites for admission
The course is aimed at students who have acquired the elements provided by the General Biochemistry course and notions of organic chemistry. In particular, the student must know the structural, chemical and physical properties of the main organic biomolecules (with both simple and macromolecular structure) of specific relevance for the human organism, as well as their functions. The knowledge of the elements of kinetics and thermodynamics of chemical processes is also a prerequisite for the full understanding of the chemical reactions that make up the metabolic pathways and their regulation at both cellular and organ level.
Teaching methods
Frontal lectures (7 credits) and class exercises (1 credit)
Teaching Resources
Iconographic material of the lessons on the site https://ariel.unimi.it/

- D.L. Nelson, M.M. Cox, "I Principi di Biochimica di Lehninger", Zanichelli, 7°ed., 2018
- N. Siliprandi, G. Tettamanti, "Biochimica Applicata Medica", Piccin, 5°ed., 2018
- T.M.Devlin, "Biochimica con aspetti clinico-farmaceutici", EdiSES, 5° ed., 2013
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of an oral test, which includes the treatment of:
- a metabolic pathway and its regulation
- a vitamin
- a hormone
- the metabolism of an organ.
The exam is considered passed when the student demonstrates knowledge of the required topics.
The criterion for assigning the mark is established on the basis of the level reached by the student to expose his knowledge with appropriate terminology and to correlate the various topics with each other.

In each Academic Year 7 exam sessions will be fixed. These "ordinary" sessions will be scheduled only in the periods in which there is no provision of lessons, namely:
- 1 exam in the autumn suspension period of teaching (usually at the end of November);
- 2 exam sessions between the last week of January and the end of February;
- 1 exam in the spring suspension period of teaching (usually in April)
- 2 exam sessions between mid-June and late July;
- 1 session in September.

In each Academic Year, at the request of the students, two "extraordinary" sessions, reserved for students who are out of course and repeating, can be set in periods in which there is no suspension of teaching activities.
BIO/10 - BIOCHEMISTRY - University credits: 8
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 56 hours
Professor: Colombo Irma