The course provides knowledge in the basics of biomechanics, fluid mechanics, and their implications. The course provides an introduction to the theoretical foundations of analytical techniques and instruments in biomechanics used in sports. The course provides knowledge about the static and dynamic effects of forces involved in posture and movement, body behavior in relation to its barycenter, and polygon of support. The course covers the kinesiology of major body joints and human locomotion, and instruments for analyzing movement.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will be able to solve simple Physics problems and provide quantitative evaluations of the physical phenomena under investigation. The student will understand physics aspects involved in human locomotion and will be able to face biomechanical problems during exercise and sport activities. The student will know how to analyze human body movements in relation to mechanics and its components: statics, dynamics, and kinematics. Fundamental skills on kinesiology and human locomotion will be also provided. Analysis of postural control, human locomotion, and best kinesiology interventions in exercise and sports will be also faced.
Physics module program: · Mechanics. One dimension motion. Average and instantaneous speed. Average and instantaneous acceleration. Trajectory and law of uniform motion and uniformly accelerated motion. Free fall motion, jump and vertical throw. · Vectors and operations with vectors. Motions in multiple dimensions. Bullet motion and distance. · Power. Mass. The three laws of dynamics. Gravitational pull force and weight force. Elastic force. Normal and frictional surface forces. The inclined plane. Ropes and pulleys. Centripetal acceleration. Centripetal force. Impulse of a force and impulse theorem. Impulse production stages in sports. Vertical jump effectiveness. Conservation of momentum. Collisions. Effective mass in shots and 'throws' in sport. Mechanical work. Power. Conservative and dissipative forces. Power. Kinetic energy. Kinetic energy theorem. Potential energy. Gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy. Mechanical energy conservation law. Applications to altitude gains, throws and collisions. Extended bodies. Center of mass and center of gravity. Rotation of large bodies. Angular kinematics. Twisting moment of a force. Moment of inertia. Rotation dynamics. Angular momentum and conservation law. · Static. Balance conditions for an extended body. Levers. Levers in the human body. Rotations of the human body. Variation of the moment of inertia in the articulated human body. · Fluids. Density and pressure. Static. Stevin, Pascal and Archimedes laws. Basics of fluid dynamics. Flow rate and its conservation for fluids in laminar motion. Ideal fluids and Bernoulli's theorem. Viscous fluids. Hydraulic resistance and Poiseuille's law. Fluid resistance. Effects on motion in air and water. Limiting speed. Elements of air flight dynamics, applications in sport.
Field physics exercise program. · Balance of forces as vectors. Evaluation of the 'squat-jump' effectiveness. · Evaluation of the elastic constant of gym elastic bands. Angular velocity measurements and centripetal force evaluation for uniform circular motions. · Evaluation of the position of the gravity center of the human body in an upright position. Evaluation of the force applied by the biceps and triceps muscles in training activities in the gym. · Evaluation of the variation of the moment of inertia in the articulated human body, through angular velocity measurements.
Program of the Biomechanics module 1. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS TOOLS (PART I) . KINEMATICS tools: motion capture systems, optoelectronic systems, accelerometers, gyroscopes, electro-goniometers. MEMS sensors. 2. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS TOOLS (PART II) . DYNAMICS tools: load cells, dynamometers, ergometers (with particular reference to isokinetics), force platforms. . MUSCULAR ELECTRIC ACTIVITY Tools: EMG (methods for assessing neuromuscular fatigue). 3. BIOMECHANICS OF POSTURE AND LIFTING OF LOADS . The "biomechanical" human model . Static load distribution in the various postures . Lumbar load and weight lifting . Orthostatic balance analysis . Biomechanical analysis of the sit-to-stand 4. BIOMECHANICS OF WALKING AND RUNNING . Walking . Race walk and run . Mechanical efficiency of race walk and running . Notes on pathological gaits. 5. BIOMECHANICS OF VERTICAL JUMPING . SJ and CMJ . Long jump . High jump . Jump with run-up, third time . Evaluation of asymmetries in vertical jumping 6. BIOMECHANICS OF THE LAUNCH . Overhead launch: biomechanical determinants and training . Throwing in sports . Use of the stretch-shortening cycle in throwing 7. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS IN TEAM SPORTS. . Biomechanical analysis in football . Use of GPS technology in team sports 8. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SWIMMING AND CYCLIC SPORTS . Swimming . Cycling . Canoeing 9. BIOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF RACKET SPORTS . Tennis, badmington, squash.
Program of the Articular Kinesiology module. Sub-module A. The muscle as an engine. 1. Calls of muscle physiology: force-length and force-speed diagrams. 2. Work and power. Positive and negative work. 3. Relationship between muscle and tendon morphology, and mechanical performance of the muscle. 4. Stretching and muscle retraction. 5. Relationship between nerve activation and muscle strength. Force time modulation. 6. Strength and fatigue. Limiting factors for maximal force production Sub-module B. The arthro-muscular machine. 1. Articular levers. 2. Forces and joint moments. 3. Multi-segmentary concatenation: anticipatory postural actions. 4. Elements of semeiotics of muscle strength.
Prerequisites for admission
Teaching prerequisites are knowledge of mathematics methods and principles of elementary physics, as detailed in the admission test programs, along with the notions of osteo-articular and musculoskeletal anatomy deriving from the 1st year course of "Human anatomy and applied morphology".
For the Physics module, teaching will be provided through frontal lectures and field exercises based on group work. The tutorials will use didactic guides available to students on the Ariel website, classic measuring instruments as well as smart-phone applications for measurements and image analysis. For the Biomechanics module, teaching will consist of frontal lectures in which theoretical explanation phases will alternate with examples of operation of the main instruments that are used in biomechanical assessments in field and laboratory, especially aimed at the study of sports gestures. For the articular kinesiology module, the teaching will consist of frontal lectures.
the Physics module program some basic Physics texts are recommended, such as: 1) F. Borsi, A. Lascialfari, Principi di fisica. Per indirizzo biomedico e farmaceutico. Edises. 2) D. C. Giancoli. Fisica. Principi e applicazioni. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana. The didactic material is also available on the Ariel website: teaching cards, course slides and exercises with results. The following texts are recommended for the program of the Biomechanics module: 1) R. Bartlett. Introduction to Sports Biomechanics. E&FN SPON, 1997. 2) B.F. Leveau: Biomeccanica del movimento umano. William & Lissner's, Verduci Editore, 1993. The following texts are recommended for the program of the Kinesiology module: 1) Kendall F., Kendall McCreary E. I muscoli. Funzioni e test con postura e dolore. Verduci Editore, 2005 2) Neumann, D.A. Kinesiology of the musculoskeletal system. Foundations for rehabilitation. Mosby-Elsevier, 2010
Assessment methods and Criteria
A written exam will be performed, consisting of multiple choice and open questions. The annual course includes three ongoing tests on portions of the exam program which, if successfully passed, will be used for the final assessment. The cards delivered in itinere relating to the exercises carried out will be evaluated. The student will use the calculator during the test. The results of the test will be communicated orally in the presence of the student.