A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
Learning objectives
Understand how the application of Physico-chemical principles to cellular functions is essential in understanding cellular mechanisms.
Examine body function at all level, from cell to organ, examining how different system work together to maintain coordinated functions
Expected learning outcomes
Students are expected to enhance their knowledge, and logical and critic skills that will allow a rigorous scientific understanding of physiological topics to approach toxicological issues. Capability to recognize physico-chemical basis of phenomena, broadening ability of exposition of concepts and description of problematics are expected as well
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
First semester
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Learning verification : The exam is oral and takes place with the use of the Teams platform.
Course syllabus
Cellular and molecular physiology- Cell membrane. Osmosis. Movement of solutes across the cell membrane: diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport.
Excitability- Intracellular recording. Resting membrane potential and its ionic basis. Ion channels. Nernst and Goldman equations. Excitable cells. Action potential.
Nervous system activities- Synapsis. Neurotransmitters. Receptors. Post synaptic potentials. Sensory receptors. Transduction and analog to digital conversion. Reflexes. Muscle tone and posture. Sensorial activation of the CNS.
Autonomic nervous system- Fundamentals
Muscular contraction- Sliding filament theory. Neuromuscular junction. End plate potential. Isotonic and isometric contraction. Tetanic contraction. Smooth muscle.
Renal function- Glomerular filtration. Tubular function. Clearance. Fluid and electrolyte balance.
Gatrointestinal function- Secretory activity and motility of gastro-enteric apparatus. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids.
Body fluids- Extra and intracellular fluids. Blood. Plasma. Blood cells. Hemostasis.
Cardiovascular function- Mechanic and electric properties of cardiac fiber. Pacemakers. ECG. Work of the cardiac pump. Starling law. Hydraulic model of blood flow. Arterial blood pressure. Gravity effects. Neuro-humoral control.
Respiration - Respiratory mechanics. Respiratory volumes. Gas diffusion. Hemoglobins. O2 and CO2 transports. Control of breathing. Hypoxia.
Endocrinology - Fundamentals
Reproductive system - Introduction. Female reproductive system. Hormonal control of female sexual response. Male reproductive system. Hormonal control of male sexual response.
Prerequisites for admission
To take the exam of Physiology, students must have passed Physics, Biology and Anatomy, and General Chemistry
Teaching methods
The course is based on frontal teaching, by using slides and/or videos. Material of lectures will be provided on UNIMI-Ariel website.
Teaching Resources
Luciano Zocchi "Principi di Fisiologia"- II edizione-EdiSES
Silverthorn «Fisiologia umana. Un approccio integrato» settima edizione Pearson
Assessment methods and Criteria
Oral exam organized into three questions that require the discussion of the proposed topic and the ability to connect it to other topics so as to evaluate, in addition to the knowledge acquired, the ability to reason and the acquisition of a correct scientific language . The exam lasts about thirty minutes and the mark is expressed out of thirty.
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 6
Lessons: 48 hours
Educational website(s)