Physiology and Pathology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
BIO/09 MED/04 MED/07 MED/08
Learning objectives
The course aims at providing students with the basics of:
- the modalities of the functioning of human cells organized in tissues and organs, and the main pathogenetic and pathophysiological mechanisms at cell, tissue, organ and apparatus level;
- the main functional findings in healthy humans;
- the basic concepts concerning cellular adaptation processes and defense mechanisms activated by the body, including inflammation, tissue repair and immune response;
- the basic aspects of neoplastic transformation;
- the main pathogenic microorganisms and their mechanisms of action.
Expected learning outcomes
By the end of the course the student must be able to:
- know the general characteristics of human physiology and the main associated diseases;
- have a general picture of the causes and etiopathogenetic mechanisms of diseases;
- know the basic characteristics of the immune response and its alterations.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists in a written test with multiple-choice questions on the topics covered by the program.
No intermediate tests are planned.
Course syllabus
Excitable cell physiology and biological membranes. Resting potential and action potential. Depolarization of the membranes and signal transmission, synaptic phenomenon. Neuromuscular physiology. Posture, gait, equilibrium, movement, and motori control.
Basic physiology of the different human organs (cardiovascular, respiratory, renal systems)
Reciprocal organ influences.
Homeostatic and integrative controls at rest and in response to physical exercise.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons. The slides presented during the lessons can be found on the Ariel platform from the beginning of the course.
Teaching Resources
- Attività fisica. Fisiologia, adattamenti all'esercizio, prevenzione, sport-terapia e nutrizione. A cura di Giuseppe D'Antona. Casa Editrice Poletto. Ed. 2019.
- Fisiologia dell'esercizio. L'essenziale. William D. McArdle, Frank I. Katch, Victor L. Katch. Casa Editrice Piccin. Ed. 2019.
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Course syllabus
Introduction. Definition of etiology, pathogenesis, disease.
Cellular pathology. Reversible / irreversible damage; apoptosis / necrosis; atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia.
First line of defense. Physical and physiological barriers
Immune response. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response; immunodeficiencies, hypersensitivity reactions, autoimmunity.
Inflammation. Acute inflammation: vascular changes, cellular events, mediators; chronic inflammation; systemic responses to inflammation.
Tissue repair. Wound healing, regeneration.
Oncology. Epidemiology and classification of tumors; tumor cell characteristics; molecular basis of tumors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes; metastases.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons. The slides presented during the lessons can be found on the Ariel platform.
Teaching Resources
G.M. PONTIERI: Elementi di patologia generale. IV edizione - Piccin Editore
E. RUBIN, H.M. REISNER: Patologia generale.- Piccin Editore
Robbins e Cotran: Le basi patologiche delle malattie - Elsevier Editore
Course syllabus
Role of pathology in the clinical management of the patient
Pathology report interpretation
Atherosclerosis and complications
Non-neoplastic pathology of nervous system and soft tissues
Neoplastic pathology
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools
Teaching Resources
Robbins, Cotran- Le basi patologiche delle malattie- Elsevier Ed
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Course syllabus
- General characteristics of bacteria (prokaryotic cell, bacterial pathogenicity)
- General characteristics of animal viruses (structure and classification, replication cycle, viral pathogenic action)
- General characteristics of fungi (structure of the fungal cell)
- General characteristics of parasites
- Relevant pathogenic microorganisms (Stafilococci, Streptococci, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacteria, Neisseriae, Orthomyxovirus, Hepatitis viruses, Retrovirus, Herpesviruses, Candida spp. Plasmodia, Toxoplasma gondii)
Teaching methods
The program will be carried out through lectures with the help of teaching material (slides and / or videos)
Teaching Resources
1. Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
2. Microbiologia Clinica. IV edizione.E Lanciotti. Casa Editrice Ambrosiana.
Experimental medicine and pathophysiology
Lessons: 20 hours
Sezione: San Carlo
Professor: Chiaramonte Raffaella
Sezioni: San Carlo-Don Gnocchi
Professor: Malabarba Maria Grazia
Microbiology and clinical microbiology
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Borghi Elisa
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Sezione: San Carlo
Professor: Pruneri Giancarlo
Sezioni: San Paolo-Don Gnocchi
Professor: Guerini Rocco Elena
BIO/09 - PHYSIOLOGY - University credits: 4
Lessons: 40 hours
Professor: Esposito Fabio
by appointment
San Paolo Hospital, blocco C, 8° floor
By appointment
Via Giuseppe Colombo 71, (Building #2) - 20133 Milano