Scienze propedeutiche

A.Y. 2021/2022
7
Max ECTS
70
Overall hours
SSD
FIS/07 INF/01 ING-INF/05 M-FIL/02 MED/01
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
The general objective of the course is to favour the student's quantitative approach to data and critical evaluation of the results in various disciplines. This will occur through the familiarity with basic concepts and specific methods of logic, informatics, statistics and physics, mainly in the biomedical field.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student is expected to be able to:
- Assign units and estimate the order of magnitude of various physical quantities of biomedical interest
- Observe and measure physical phenomena and develop models to describe them, through a basic application of scientific method
- Describe the general principles and types of algorithms for digital image processing applied to diagnostics.
- Collect and organize data about a sample of patients
- Elaborate a set of clinical data through basic techniques of descriptive and inferential statistics
- Identify the features of the design of observational and experimental clinical studies
- Understand and use clinical literature to analyze diagnostic tests
- Recognize the logical structure of scientific arguments via examining general patterns of inference and their instantiation in significant examples from scientific practice
- Apply main IT tools to ortoptic tasks, including learning, clinical assistance and research
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
More specific information on the delivery modes of training activities for academic year 2021/22 will be provided over the coming months, based on the evolution of the public health situation.
Prerequisites for admission
The student must have basic knowledge of algebra and elements of geometry.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The MEDICAL STATISTICS module is preliminary to the module of statistics for clinical research. This module cannot therefore be passed without a positive evaluation for medical statistics. During the test, any material in paper form can be used.
The results are provided on the Ariel website of the integrated course and directly by email to each student who requests it from her/his own UNIMI email address.
APPLIED PHYSICS
The exam consists of a written test plus a possible oral test.
The written test is composed of open questions and multiple choice questions about the course topics. Some of them can require the solution of simple problems.
Written texts and notes are not allowed, while a calculator is allowed.
Students with positive evaluation on at least half of the written exam can access a voluntary oral examination. The teacher can require an oral examination in case of particular uncertainty in the evaluation of the written exam.
The possible oral exam deals with the topics discussed in the course and can start from the discussion of the written exam.
LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE
The exam consists in an oral test on the topics discussed in the course and referred to in the exam bibliography.
INFORMATICS
The exam consists in an oral and practical test on the topics discussed in the course.
POSITIVE EVALUATION
The results for each module will be provided to the students via Ariel.
To succeed, the student must have a positive evaluation in all the modules. The final score is the CFU-weighted average of the scores, rounded up.
In order to obtain 30 cum laude, the student must obtain 30 cum laude in at least one module.
Fisica generale
Course syllabus
Preliminary tools: Fundamental and derived quantities, International System, Multiples and submultiples, scientific notation and significant figures, Estimates of orders of magnitude, Scalar and vector quantities, Vector operations.
Mechanics: Types of motion, Principles of dynamics, Forces: gravitational, weight, constraint reaction, friction, elastic, Work of a force, Kinetic energy theorem, Conservative forces, potential energy, Conservation of mechanical energy, Dissipative forces, Types of deformation, Stress-strain curves, Young modulus, States of matter.
Fluids: Pressure, Relative pressure, Tonometer and measurement of ocular pressure, Stevin's law, Archimedes force, Flow rate, Bernoulli's theorem, Viscosity
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with blackboard and projector (slides).
Homeworks are assigned and discussed during the following classes.
Teaching Resources
Suggested books are for reference only. The student should use lecture notes and can freely choose on which books to study the discussed topics. Lecture slides and tutorials will be provided via Ariel.

- Openstax College Physics: https://openstax.org/details/books/college-physics
- Scannicchio-Giroletti "Elementi di fisica biomedica", EdiSES
- Borsa-Lascialfari "Principi di fisica", EdiSES
- Bellini-Cerbino-Manuzio-Marzari-Repetto-Zennaro "Fisica per medicina", Piccin
Informatica
Course syllabus
Office for ortoptists: management of database, manuscripts, clinical cases and data presentations.
Multimedial tools for clinical cases and research.
Internet, tools for learning and research: digital libraries, data banks, clouds for clinical research.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and computer sessions
Teaching Resources
Educational material provided by the teacher
Sistemi di elaborazione delle informazioni
Course syllabus
Elettromagnetism: Electric charge, Coulomb's force and electric field, Electric potential, Conducting and insulating materials, Electric current, Electromagnetic waves and light-matter interaction.
Features of vision and perceptive phenomena, Color features: Gamut, chromatic coordinates and color spaces, spatial sampling and luminance quantization.
Quality parameters of a digital image and sources of noise, Graphic files formats, Lossless and lossy compression, Digital images in medicine.
Operations on digital images: point, local and global operators, Operations on grey level histogram, Contrast enhancing, False colors, Convolution matrix filters: smoothing and sharpening, contour enhancing, Introduction to spatial Fourier transform, high-pass and low-pass filters.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons and computer sessions.
Teaching Resources
Saranno fornite le slide delle lezioni e tutorial.

- "Principles of Digital Image Processing" Wilhelm Burger, Mark J. Burge - Springer
- "Digital Image Processing (second edition)" Rafael C. Gonzalez, Richard E. Woods - Prentice Hall
Statistica medica
Course syllabus
THE ROLE OF STATISTICS IN THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STUDY IN THE CLINICAL AREA
- studies to estimate prevalence and incidence
- risk factor studies (case-control and cohort)
- experimental studies for the evaluation of a treatment (observational, experimental (phase I, II, III)
- notes on the PubMed database
ELEMENTS OF DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS
- Measurement scales of variables
- Graphical representations (bar charts, pie charts, histograms, box plots)
- Numerical synthesis measurements (depending on the measurement scale and the shape of the distribution) mean, median, mode, interquartile range, standard deviation
GAUSSIAN DISTRIBUTION
Mathematical characteristics of the distribution
Interpretation of the parameters
The standardized Gaussian
Use of tables to calculate probability
DIAGNOSTIC TESTS
- Sensitivity, specificity
- Likelihood Ratio (positive and negative)
- Predictive values (positive and negative)
INTRODUCTION TO INFERENCE
- Sample distributions of means and proportions
- central limit theorem
- confidence interval for means and proportions
- the use of Student's t distribution
- hypothesis tests on means and proportions
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons followed by development and discussion of practical applications of the statistical methods covered by the lesson
Teaching Resources
Copy of the slides showed in the course of the lessons
Consultation text:
· Title: Biostatistics
· Authors: Marcello Pagano, Kimberlee Gauvreau
· Publisher: Idelson-Gnocchi
Statistica per la ricerca clinica
Course syllabus
Measurement errors
Variability sources: biological and analytical variability
Accuracy and precision.
Laboratory measurements and statistical models
Study of the association between risk factors and disease.
Statistical association and causality of effects.
Observation and experimental studies
Epidemiology / clinical study plans: cohort and case-control studies.
Confounding and randomization to treatments. The principles of experimental design.
Prevalence and incidence measures and their estimation.
Relative risk and odds ratios.
The study of the association between quantitative variables
Statistical association and dependence
Measurement methods: calibration of and regression
Principles of experimental design and analysis of variance
Concordance between measurement methods.
Application of the statistical test for the comparison between groups with different treatment.
Significance and power of the statistical test
Comparison between statistical significance and clinical relevance.
Study of the effectiveness of a preventive / therapeutic intervention.
The ethical basis of clinical / epidemiological research.
Phase I, II and III clinical trials.
Target population and inclusion criteria.
Statistical interaction and response to treatment
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons followed by the discussion of texts with practical applications of the epidemiological/statistical methods covered by the lesson
Teaching Resources
Copy of the slides showed in the course of the lessons
Consultation text:
· Title: Biostatistics
· Authors: Marcello Pagano, Kimberlee Gauvreau
· Publisher: Idelson-Gnocchi
Logica e filosofia della scienza
Course syllabus
Scientific inference
Logical patterns of mathematical reasoning
Scientific explanation
Paradigms and revolutions in science
Teaching methods
Frontal lectures with PowerPoint slides and discussion of case studies
Teaching Resources
S. Okasha, Philosophy of Science: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford 2016 (or previous editions)
Slides of the lectures will be available.
Fisica generale
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Zanchetta Giuliano
Informatica
INF/01 - INFORMATICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Logica e filosofia della scienza
M-FIL/02 - LOGIC AND PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Guzzardi Luca
Sistemi di elaborazione delle informazioni
ING-INF/05 - INFORMATION PROCESSING SYSTEMS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Zanchetta Giuliano
Statistica medica
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Boracchi Patrizia
Statistica per la ricerca clinica
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Biganzoli Elia
Educational website(s)
Professor(s)
Reception:
On appointment (email)
Reception:
Wednesday, 10.30-13.30. (During Coronavirus-emergency, student meetings only per MS Teams; please, contact me in advance, should you prefer other platforms, e.g. Skype)
Department of Philosophy
Reception:
On appointment
LITA Segrate or online