Statistics and Epidemiology

A.Y. 2021/2022
Overall hours
MED/01 MED/42 MED/50
Learning objectives
- Know the fundamental notions and the statistic methodology useful for identifying, understanding and interpreting biomedical phenomena;
- Develop knowledge for the epidemiological study of demographic characteristics, health status, accident events, occupational diseases in the general or working population.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student must be able to use, apply and interpret the statistical methodology and epidemiological studies useful to the profession.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Teaching methods and methods:
The lessons will be held in synchronous form according to the schedule established in presence and/ or online using the Microsoft Teams platform made available to the University.

Program and reference material:
The program and reference material will not change.

Assessment methods and assessment criteria:
According to the directives in force at the time of the appeal, the examination will take place in presence and/or online. Oral online examinations will be carried out using the Microsoft Teams platform or other platform indicated by the University. Online written exams will be carried out using the platform or other platform indicated by the University.
Prerequisites for admission
Mathematics and Algebra.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written test with multiple choice questions, open questions solving statistic and epidemiology exercises ans theory questions.
Medical statistics
Course syllabus
Introduction to statistics: variability of biological and clinical data. Study planning and data collection.
Qualitative and quantitative variables. Frequencies and relative frequencies distribution.
Graphical representations: bar-chart and pie-charts, histograms.
Synthesis of the data: Measure of central tendency (modal value, median, mean) and variability (range, interquartile range, standard deviation, variance, variation coefficient).
Probability. Empirical distribution and theoretical models:
Bernoulli, Binomial and Gaussian distributions.
Incidence and prevalence.
Diagnostic tests: screening, sensitivity and specificity; positive and negative likelihood ratio, positive and negative predictive value.
Statistical inference and sampling. Sample mean distribution, standard error of the mean and confidence interval for the sampling mean.
The logic of the hypothesis test. Comparison test of a mean and a proportion with a known value. P-value.
Contingency table analysis: chi-square test.
Correlation and regression.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with exercises, and application in computer laboratory.
Teaching Resources
Slides delle lezioni.
Pagano e Gavreau: Biostatistica. Idelson Gnocchi editori
Hygiene and public health
Course syllabus
1. Sources of epidemiological data
- Demographic data: the census, the age pyramid, the personal registers
- Health data: notification of infectious diseases, hospital sources, ad hoc investigations, pathology registers
- Other sources
2. Use of frequency measures and health indicators
3. Knowledge of the determinants of health and disease
4. Risk factor and disease
- Causality
- Risk measures
- The association measures: Relative Risk, Attributable Risk, Odds Ratio
5. Types of epidemiological studies
- Observational studies for the formulation of hypotheses: ecological or descriptive studies and transversal studies. Epidemiological surveillance.
- Analytical studies for hypothesis testing: cohort studies and case-control studies
- Experimental studies to support the hypothesis: randomized controlled trials and randomized controlled population studies
- Practical application of risk measures in public health.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with exercises, and application in computer laboratory.
Teaching Resources
F. Auxilia, M. Pontello "Igiene e Sanità Pubblica". Ed.: Piccin.
Signorelli C. Elementi di metodologia epidemiologica. Società Editrice Universo.
Applied medical techniques
Course syllabus
1. Importance and use of statistics, etymology and definition, variables and data (aspects, matrices, quality, methods of collection and use), limits of statistics. Examples and practical cases.
2. Produce effective data summaries: central trend and data dispersion. Examples, exercises and cases.
3. Classification and data representation. Analysis of a frequency distribution. Potential, choice, types and possible risks of graphic representations.
4. Statistics laboratory: use of statistical functions with Excel. Analysis of numerical and categorical variables through the calculation of the main summary measures, the construction of frequency distribution tables and the creation of graphs with Excel.
5. Advantages and risks of using a sample, planning and sampling methods, question of the error in inference. Association and relationships between variables (correlation and regression).
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons with exercises, and application in computer laboratory.
Teaching Resources
Maurizio De Prà "Finalmente ho capito la Statistica", Vallardi Editore
Andrea Ripoli "Statistica Medica Facile. Alice nel paese del p-value", Il Pensiero Scientifico.
Applied medical techniques
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Rossi Marco
Hygiene and public health
MED/42 - HYGIENE AND PUBLIC HEALTH - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Medical statistics
MED/01 - MEDICAL STATISTICS - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Ardoino Ilaria