Plant reproduction The course will be focused on the male and female reproductive organ development. In particular, the formation of the gametophytes and gametes in Angiosperm will be studied. Furthermore the fertilization process will be studied at cellular and molecular level. The reproductive strategy adapted by Angiosperm to avoid self fertilization will be presented and discussed. Finally alternative reproductive strategies such as apomixes and vegetative reproduction will be discussed
Animal reproduction Sexual and asexual reproduction in animals: advantages and drawbacks. Alternative reproductive strategies: parthenogenesis, hybridogenesis, unisexual species, meta-sexual reproduction. Evolution without mating. Environmental and genetic sex determination. Complex life cycles and breeding strategies. Evolution of sterile workers in eusocial species. Evolutionary processes beyond the complex life cycles: larval stages, paedomorphosis, transition from indirect to direct development in vertebrates. Oviparity and viviparity. Transition from oviparity to viviparity in vertebrates. Evolution of viviparity in mammals.