Clinical Microbiology and related diagnostic techniques

A.Y. 2019/2020
5
Max ECTS
50
Overall hours
SSD
MED/07 MED/46
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student will understand the mechanisms and the direct and indirect methodologies for an appropriate microbiological investigations.
Student will also know the most common pathogens responsible of human infections as well as:
1) the morphological, cultural, antigenic characteristics useful for their identification within the diagnostic process in order to define the correct aetiology of an infection disease.
2) the routes of transmission and the pathogenetic factors of infectious agents as useful elements for choosing the most appropriate tools for a correct microbiological investigation in the clinical Lab. This understanding will start with the choice of the type of sample to be analyzed, the methods of samples collections as well as the methods of storage and samples transportation, and finally the relative diagnostic tests.
Expected learning outcomes
The student will learn the general and clinical characteristics related to bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections. These features will serve as a basis for applying the main detection techniques for the main microorganisms as well as for the learning of those diagnostic techniques useful for the following year (the third one).
Student will be able to learn the most relevant diagnostic techniques in the microbiological field. She/he will also learn the basis of the analytical flow within a typical Microbiology Laboratory.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Responsible
Prerequisites for admission
Student must have previously acquired the basic knowledge of the most relevant laboratory techniques in microbiology. Understanding the basics methods of microbiological sowing, cultivation and growth of the main pathogenic microorganisms, as well as knowing the basic differences between bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam will be both in a written and oral form by including all the topics listed in the program. In particular, each student will receive a written test with open questions and a subsequent oral examination, both supported on the same day.
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
Course syllabus
Criteria of classification of human bacteria.
General principles for the diagnosis of bacterial diseases.
Description of the general characteristics of the bacterial groups listed below, including:
∙ Morphology and staining characteristics,
∙ Physiology in relation to cultural and identification characteristics,
∙ Antigens structure in relation to their of pathogenicity, classification and identification,
∙ Production of enzymes and toxins in relation to pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis,
∙ Sensitivity-resistance to the main antibacterial drugs,
∙ Description of the most relevant species from the medical point of view,
∙ Distinctive features of the species,
∙ Epidemiology (habitats, sources and transmission routes) and prevention,
∙ Laboratory diagnosis.
Staphylococci
Streptococci
Neisseriae
Corynebacterium
Listeria
Spore-forming bacilli
Mycobacteria
Enterobacteriaceae
Pseudomonas.
Vibrio, Helicobacter and Campylobacter
Yersiniae
Brucellae
Emophylus and Bordetelle
Spirochetes
Rickettsiae
Chlamydiae
Mycoplasmas
PARASITOLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of diseases caused by protozoa and multicellular parasites.
Sources of infection and transmission pathways, parasite-host relationship, pathogenicity factors, Laboratory diagnosis of parasitic infections.
Morphological characteristics, replication cycle, and parasite-host interaction of:
Giardia intestinalis
Trichomonas vaginalis
Leishmania spp.
Tripanosoma spp.
Entamoeba histolytica
Naegleria fowleri
Plasmodium spp.
Toxoplasma gondii
Pneumocistis carinii
Balantidium coli
Main helminths responsible for human infestations belonging to:
Tapeworms,
Nematodes,
Trematodes.
VIROLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of diseases caused by human viruses.
Sources of infection and transmission routes, virus-host relationship.
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections.
Classification criteria of human viruses
DNA viruses
RNA viruses
Replication cycle and infection caused by:
∙ Hepatotropic virus
∙ Respiratory viruses
-Enteric viruses
∙ Retrovirus - HIV
∙ Herpesvirus
MYCOLOGY
General principles for the etiological diagnosis of human diseases caused by fungi.
Sources of infection, transmission routes and host relationship.
Laboratory diagnosis of fungal infections.
Classification of the main forms of mycosis
Reproduction and pathogenic characteristics of:
∙ Candida,
∙ Cryptococcus
∙ Aspergillus spp.
∙ Dermatophytes
-Dimorphic yeasts
- Laboratory diagnosis
NOTES FOR DIAGNOSIS OF MICROORGANISMS RESPONSIBLE OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES:
∙ Sample collection
∙ Sample transportations and storage
∙ Pre-analytical phase and pre-processing techniques of the different clinical samples
∙ Direct microscopic examination
∙ Sowing methods, choice of the most suitable cultivation methods, incubation conditions of the following clinical samples:
∙ Blood
∙ Liquor
∙ Urine
∙ Feces
Samples from the upper and lower respiratory tracts (pharyngeal swab, sputum, bronchial lavage, etc.)
Pus, exudates, wounds aspirate, etc.
∙ Serological methods for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools.
Exercises at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.
These methods will guide the student to the best conditions for learning clinical microbiology and the main techniques related to.
By slides showing and procedural laboratory tests during the lessons, each student will be provided with all the tools necessary to pass the exams.
Teaching Resources
Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Scienze tecniche di medicina di laboratorio
Course syllabus
∙ Pre-analytical phase
∙ Type of microbiological samples
∙ Assessment of the samples
∙ Sample acceptance modality
∙ Analytical phase
∙ Bacteriological diagnosis
∙ Direct diagnosis
∙ Manual and automated identification systems
API systems
Vitek systems
∙ Agglutination test
∙ Molecular identification of microorganisms
- PCR and electrophoresis
∙ Real Time PCR
∙ Multiplex PCR
∙ Pyrosequencing
∙ Indirect diagnosis
∙ Bacterial serology
∙ Antibiogram
∙ Virological diagnosis
∙ Direct diagnosis
∙ Indirect diagnosis
∙ Post-analytical phase
∙ Reporting
∙ Analytical validation
∙ Clinical validation
BIOLOGICAL RISKS RELATED TO THE MICROORGANISMS:
∙ Class I microorganisms
∙ Class II microorganisms
∙ Class III microorganisms
∙ Class IV microorganisms
LABORATORY MANAGEMENT OF HIV VIRUS, HEPATITIS B, C AND DELTA VIRUS:
General protocols and processing techniques
LABORATORY MANAGEMENT OF MICOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS
General protocols and processing techniques
LABORATORY PROCEDURES FOR BIOLOGICAL RISK MANAGEMENT:
∙ Algorithms and procedures for the right management;
∙ Laboratory test on the source patient;
∙ Laboratory test on the subject at risk;
∙ Reporting procedures and related issues
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons assisted by visual tools.
Exercises at the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory.
These methods will guide the student to the best conditions for learning clinical microbiology and the main techniques related to.
By slides showing and procedural laboratory tests during the lessons, each student will be provided with all the tools necessary to pass the exams.
Teaching Resources
Michele La Placa: Principi di Microbiologia Medica, Edises s.r.l., Napoli
Patrick R. Murray, Ken S. Rosenthal, Michael A. Pfaller: Microbiologia Medica, Edra Masson, Milano
Microbiologia e microbiologia clinica
MED/07 - MICROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY - University credits: 3
Lessons: 30 hours
Professor: Drago Lorenzo
Scienze tecniche di medicina di laboratorio
MED/46 - BIOTECHNOLOGY AND METHODS IN LABORATORY MEDICINE - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: De Vecchi Elena