The teaching of Human Anatomy and General Biology aims to provide students with an overall view of how the peculiarities and basic mechanisms present in eukaryotic cells contribute to the integration of the various cell types in the formation of the different tissues and organs present in the human body. The teaching program of the General Biology module has been designed to present students with the essential concepts for understanding the topics covered in the Human Anatomy module, and the combination of these two teachings provides students with useful and indispensable knowledge for to face and better understand the teachings they will face during the continuation of their training, particularly those of a biological nature, such as Biochemistry, Microbiology, Physiology, Pathology and others.
Expected learning outcomes
After following the teaching of Human Anatomy and General Biology, and having successfully passed the exam, students are expected to have developed the ability to apply the acquired knowledge to the working context in which they will be able to find themselves. The acquired knowledge will enable students to understand the effect of environmental pollutants not only on simple organisms but also on humans and the various organs that make up the human body. The critical view of the whole, acquired by the students, will allow them to critically evaluate the complex and reciprocal interaction that exists between the environment and the human body.
The teaching of General Biology takes place in the first half of the first year, so the basic knowledge acquired at the secondary school is sufficient. The teaching of Human Anatomy requires the knowledge acquired with the teaching of General Biology.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Written and oral examination with an evaluation expressed in thirtieths. The student will be questioned on: 1)General Biology: different aspects of the structure and function of procariotic and eukaryotic cells, showing full knowledge of the basic mechanisms analysed during teaching lessons; 2) Human anatomy: an hour to answer, in a written way, three questions concerning the basic principles of histology and the general notions of systematic and functional Anatomy. Overall, preparation will be assessed in all the topics covered during the examination, including the ability to associate with each other the various control mechanisms and correlations between the various processes and systems studied.
Principles of classification of living organisms. The division into Kingdoms: bacteria, Archaeans, protists, fungi, plants and animals. Chemical composition of living matter. Biological macromolecules. Structure and functions of proteins. Notes on the structure and functions of antibodies. Structure and functions of nucleic acids. Energy and Metabolism. Flow of matter and energy through living organisms. Chemio-autotrophic organisms, photo-autotrophic and Heterotrophic. Enzymes as biological catalysts: nature and properties. An overview of bioenergetics and metabolic compartmentalization. Glycolysis. Mitochondria, structure and functions, aerobic respiration (formation of Acetyl-Coa, citric acid cycle, electron transport and chemosmosis), fermentation, chloroplasts and photosynthesis. Structure and functions of the eukaryotic cell. Composition, structure and role of the membranes. Selective plasma membrane permeability: osmosis, simple and facilitated diffusion, active transport. Endocytosis and exocytosis. The internal membrane system. Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Golgi apparatus. Lysosomes. Peroxisomes. The nucleus. Structure of the nuclear envelope and the nuclear pores. DNA as hereditary material. Structure of eukaryotic chromosomes and genes. Genotype and phenotype. Mutations and their evolutionary role. DNA replication. Transcription and maturation of RNA. Protein synthesis. Structure of the ribosome. The genetic code. Synthesis of polypeptides. Sorting of proteins in cell compartments. Vesicular traffic. The control of the translation. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structure and functions of the cytoskeleton: microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. The cellular movement. The muscle cell. Cellular surface and intercellular communication. Extracellular matrix. Cellular adhesion. cell junctions. Membrane and intracellular receptors. Receptor response mechanisms and signal transduction pathways. The cell cycle. The phases of the cellular cycle. Control of the cell cycle. Growth factors. Cell division. Apoptosis. Uncontrolled cell proliferation: cancer. Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. The reproduction of cells and organisms. Asexual and sexual reproduction. Meiosis. The mechanism of crossing-over and its evolutionary importance. Gametogenesis, fertilization, early stages of development in animals. Molecular mechanisms of differentiation. Genetic engineering notes: plasmids and recombinant DNA. Genetically modified organisms. Elements of plant biology. Peculiarities of plant cells. The cell wall and the vacuole. Structure and functions of plastids. Control of homeostasis in plant cells. Evolution of plants: C3, C4 and CAM. Biodiversity and the origin of life. The formation of the first organic molecules, the first aggregates and the first cells. Chemical evolution. Spontaneous generation. Pasteur experiment. Miller experiment. Spontaneous condensation of hydrocyanic acid and formaldehyde. Darwinian concept of evolution. Natural and artificial selection. The Mendelian model. The inheritance of characters in sexual reproductive organisms. Chromosomal basis of inheritance. Methods of cell study. Theoretical-practical aspects of cell cultures. Principles of optical and fluorescence microscopy.
Frontal lessons in the classroom.
Hardin J., Bertoni G., Kleinsmith L.J., Il mondo della cellula, nona edizione, Pearson, 2018. Solomon E.P., Berg L.R., Martin D.W., Villee C., Elementi di Biologia, EdiSES, settima edizione, 2017.
HISTOLOGY Fundamental characters and classification criteria of epithelial, connective, muscular and nervous tissues. GENERAL ANATOMY General principles of human anatomy. Hollow and full organs. TUMBLE APPARATUS General characteristics and structure of the skin - - Cutaneous appendages - hints of receptors PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM General organization - Nerves and ganglia - Relative nerve endings - Spinal nerves - The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Organization of the nervous system: concept of blood-brain barrier - neuronal chains - synapses - types of sensitivity - macroscopic description of the central nervous system - organization of grey matter and white matter in the spinal cord and in the brainstem - The cerebellum: morphology, cyto-architecture - The diencephalon: morphology, subdivision - The telencephalon: morphology, cytoarchitecture - The cortical areas - the meninges. CARDIO-VASCULAR SYSTEM General overview of circulation. Organization named circulatory - The heart - The pericardium - Arterial vessels and venous vessels. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM General organization - The nasal cavities - The larynx - The trachea and the bronchi - The lungs - Concept of Pulmonary Lobule - The pulmonary alveoli: Air-Blood barrier - Le pleure. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM General organization - The oral cavity: tongue, salivary glands - The pharynx - The esophagus - The stomach - The small intestine and the large intestine - The liver - The pancreas - spleen URINARY SYSTEM General organization - The kidney - Concept of Blood-Urine Barrier - The nephron - Ureter - Bladder - Urethra ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: General organization - The endocrine hypothalamus - The pituitary and the pituitary portal system - General information on all glands Description of endocrine, adrenal, thymus, thyroid and pancreas structures. MALE GENITAL APPARATUS General Organization - Sperm Pathways - The glands attached to the male genital system. Spermatogenesis FEMALE GENITAL SYSTEM General organization - The female genital tract and annexed glands - The ovarian cycle and ovogenesis
Frontal lessons in the classroom.
M. T. Conconi, C. Rumio. Principi di Anatomia Microscopica con cenni di Istologia e Anatomia Macroscopica, EDISES.