Infectious Diseases

A.Y. 2019/2020
5
Max ECTS
64
Overall hours
SSD
MED/17
Language
Italian
Learning objectives
At the end of the course the student will:
· have acquired the epidemiological, clinical-anamnestic and instrumental elements to identify the main infectious diseases
· have acquired the elements to evaluate the main laboratory investigations used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
· have acquired the elements to identify the main infectious diseases
· know how to indicate the main classes of antibiotics and their use in bacterial infections
· know how to indicate the main classes of antivirals and antifungals
· be able to report the main measures of individual and general prophylaxis relating to infectious diseases
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course, the student has to:
· acquire the main knowledge related to epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, natural history, diagnostics and therapy principles of the main infectious diseases of the following organs and systems: respiratory, gastrointestinal, central nervous system as well as exanthematous diseases, systemic diseases and main tropical diseases
· know the individual and collective prophylaxis measures as well as the regulations in force relating to contumacy measures
· know the microbiological and instrumental investigations necessary to reach a correct diagnosis of infectious disease;
· be able to correctly interpret the information contained in the microbiological and instrumental reports in order to obtain precise indications for an adequate therapeutic decision-making process.
Course syllabus and organization

Linea: Policlinico

Responsible
Course syllabus
Exanthematical infections
- Epidemiology
- Etiology
- Pathogenesis and clinical (typical course and complications)
- Therapeutic possibilities
- Active and passive prophylaxis
the following rash diseases: measles, rubella, infectious megaloerythema, critical rash, scarlet fever, chickenpox and other vesicular rashes

Respiratory tract infections

- Infectious respiratory syndromes:
- Diphtheria
- Pharyngitis / tonsillitis
- Epiglottis/laryngitis/tracheitis
- Acute bronchitis and relapse of chronic bronchitis
- Bronchiolitis
- Viral pneumonia
- Bacterial pneumonia
- Influenza
- Pulmonary tuberculosis (and extrapulmonary forms)
- Pertussis

Liver and biliary tract infections

- Epidemiology, etiology and pathogenesis of viral hepatitis
- Diagnosis of acute and chronic viral hepatitis
- Treatment of viral hepatitis
- Yellow fever
- Leptospirosis
- Hydatidosis
- Biliary tract infections

Infections of the digestive system: infectious diarrhoea

- Aetiological and pathophysiological classification
- Food poisoning (staphylococcal, botulism, C. perfrigens, V. parahaemoliticus, B. cereus)
- Viral Gastroenteritis (Norwalk, Rotavirus, other viruses involved)
- Bacterial gastroenteritis (Cholera, E.coli, minor salmonellosis, Shigella, Campylobacter, C. difficile)
- Protozoan diarrhea (gardening, amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis)
- Helminth diarrhea (tapeworm, oxyuriasis, ascaridiases)

Tropical Diseases

- Epidemiology of tropical diseases: what are the 6 deadly killers?
- Malaria
- Epidemiology
- Life cycle
- Pathogenesis
- Typical and atypical presentation
- Complications and prognosis
- Diagnosis
- Differential diagnosis between plasmids
- Principles of therapy and prophylaxis
- Schistosomiasis
- Epidemiology
- Life cycle
- Clinical: acute form, chronic forms
- Diagnosis
- Therapy
- Control measures

Infections transmitted by arthropods

- Dengue
- West-Nile fever
- Zika virus
- Chikungunya
- Viral haemorrhagic fevers
- Rickettsiosis rash and ehrlichiosis

Systemic infections

- Infectious mononucleosis and CMV infection
- Brucellosis
- Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis
- Lyme Diseases
- Toxoplasmosis
- Atypical mycobacteriosis

Sepsis and septic shock
- Etiology and epidemiology
- Pathophysiology and pathogenesis
- Clinical overview
- Microbiological diagnosis
- The antibiotic and supportive therapeutic approach

HIV infection

- History
- Epidemiology
- Vital click of HIV
- Natural history of infection
- Immunopathogenesis
- Main opportunistic manifestations, divided by apparatus
- Diagnosis of acute and chronic infection


Immunocompromised host infections

- Infections in the solid organ transplant patient
- Infections in the bone marrow transplant patient
- Infections in the patient with neoplasia
- Splenectomized patient infections
- Infections in the diabetic patient
- Infections in the alcoholic patient
- Infections in the injecting drug patient

Infections of the soft tissue and musculoskeletal system

- Cellulitis and soft tissue infections, in particular:
- Erisipela
- Gaseous gangrene
- Necrotizing fasciitis
- Primitive septic arthritis and on synthetic media
- Primitive and Synthetic Osteomyelitis
- Sponsoredilodisciti

Infections of the cardiovascular system

- Infectious endocarditis
- Etiology
- Clinical manifestations and complications
- Diagnosis (Dukes criteria)
- Principles of therapy and prophylaxis
- Myocarditis and infectious pericarditis
- Clinical manifestations and complications
- Principles of diagnosis

Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases

- Cystitis
- Pyelonephritis
- Syphilis
- Gonorrhoea
- Chlamydia and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Trichomonas
- Gardnerella
- Lymphogranuloma venereum


Nervous system infections

- Meningiti
- Etiology
- Pathogenesis
- Clinical events
- Diagnosis (clinical and laboratory, with particular emphasis on CSF analysis)
- Principles of therapy
- Encephalitis and encephalomyelitis
- General pathogenesis
- Clinical events
- Diagnostic evaluation
- Main aetiological agents and their clinical features
- HSV and VZV
- CMV
- Enterovirus
- anger
- Bacterial toxin-mediated neurasthysts
- Cerebral abscess and subdural empyema
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required.
Teaching methods
Formal teaching: 48 ore (24 lezioni)
non-formal teaching: 16 ore (4 lezioni da 4 ore, con suddivisione in 2 gruppi)
Teaching Resources
"Malattie Infettive" di Moroni, Esposito, Antinori
"Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases" Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's
Assessment methods and Criteria
Admission to the exam is subject to the attendance of at least 75% of the lessons.
The exam will include a written test (multiple choice quiz) and an oral test.
MED/17 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES - University credits: 5
Informal teaching: 16 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Shifts:
Gruppo 1
Professor: Gori Andrea
Gruppo 2
Professor: Bandera Alessandra

Linea: San Donato

Responsible
Course syllabus
Introduction to Infectious diseases
Exanthems and skin and soft tissue infections
Systemic infections (infectious mononucleosis; CMV infection; toxoplasmosis; Lyme disease; brucellosis; sepsis and septic shock)
Upper respiratory tract infections
Pleuropulmonary infections (pneumonia; tuberculosis; influenza)
Gastrointestinal infections and food poisoning
Acute viral hepatitis
Endocarditis
Central nervous system infections (meningitis; encephalitis)
Human Immunodeficiency virus infection/AIDS
Tropical diseases (malaria; dengue fever; Chikungunya; Zika virus infection; American trypanosomiasis; schistosomiasis)
Urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted infections
Prerequisites for admission
No prerequisites are required.
Teaching methods
Frontal teaching
Discussion of clinical cases
Teaching Resources
Moroni M, Antinori S, Mastroianni CM, Vullo V. Manuale di Malattie Infettive, Edra Masson, Terza Edizione 2020
M. Moroni, R. Esposito, S. Antinori, " Malattie Infettive " VIII Edizione, ristampa aggiornata e corretta, Masson-EDRA, Milano 2015

Pagliaro L, Bobbio M, Colli A. La diagnosi in medicina , Cortina Editore, I Edizione, 2011
Assessment methods and Criteria
Admission to the exam is subject to the attendance of at least 75% of the lessons.
The exam will include a written test (multiple choice quiz) and an oral test.
MED/17 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES - University credits: 5
Informal teaching: 16 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professor: Antinori Spinello

Linea: San Giuseppe

Course syllabus
Emerging infections
epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinical features of the infections of Ebola and emergent Coronavirus infections.
Exanthems
epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and clinic (typical course and complications), therapeutic possibilities, the possibilities of active and passive prophylaxis and the contumacy rules of the following exanthematous diseases: measles, rubella, V and VI disease, scarlet fever, erysipelas, shingles and other vesicular exanthemas; rickettsiosis (Mediterranean spotted fever).
Pleuropulmonary and bronchial infections
Epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, prophylaxis, principles of therapy of the following syndromes:
· upper respiratory tract infections:common cold, pharyngitis and tonsillitis,epiglottitis, laryngitis, laryngotracheitis
· bronchiolitis, whooping cough.
· influenza, pandemic influenza (H1N1) / bird flu (H5N1, H7N9); Tuberculosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary).
Hepatitis and other liver diseases
Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and natural history of viral hepatitis. Knowledge of the virological "markers" .
Gastrointestinal infections and food poisoning
Food poisoning, toxinfections and intestinal infections, with particular reference to staphylococcal poisoning; E.coli infections; Salmonella spp. and Shigellae; abdominal typhus; cholera; Clostridium difficile infection and colitis.Giardiasis and other intestinal parasites
Central nervous system infections
Clinical picture of meningeal syndrome, epidemiology and clinical data characterizing the main infectious meningitis.
Describe the clinical pictures of acute and chronic infectious encephalitic syndromes, epidemiology and clinical data characterizing the main infectious encephalitis. Mention the possibilities of laboratory and radiological diagnostic assessment
HIV infection
Known the epidemiology, pathogenesis and natural history of HIV infection.
Describe the methods of ascertaining the status of HIV infection. Describe the main diagnostic pathways targeted at screening, confirmation and monitoring of infection and diagnostic assays for monitoring antiretroviral therapy (ARV).
Describe the clinical pictures of acute infection; clinical manifestation of the main opportunistic infections (pneumocystosis; mycobacteriosis; cerebral toxoplasmosis; cryptococcosis; HCMV disease, cryptosporidiosis, PML) and of HIV-related tumors. (Kaposi's sarcoma; LNH with a high degree of malignancy; Primary cerebral lymphoma; cervical carcinoma)
Systemic infections
Known epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical pictures of the following infections:
Brucellosis; Borreliosis (Lyme disease); Infectious mononucleosis and mononucleosis-like syndromes
Leishmaniasis Toxoplasmosis.
Tropical diseases
Epidemiology, pathogenesis and main clinical features of malaria from P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and P. knowlesi. Indicate the clinical pictures and laboratory alterations associated with severe malaria,
Prophylaxis and the main therapeutic schemes regarding malaria.
Epidemiology and major clinical pictures of emerging vector-borne infections (Chikungunya, West Nile, Zika , Yellow fever and Dengue virus). Epidemiology and major clinical pictures of schistosomiasis and filariasis
Know the infectious diseases potentially connected to migratory flows with particular reference to American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease.
Sexually transmitted diseases
Main sexually transmitted infections and risk factors. Refer to the main clinical pictures of syphilis, gonorrhea, Chlamidia infections.
Indicate the serological and molecular tests for the diagnosis of STIs.
Prerequisites for admission
No prior knowledge is required.
Teaching methods
The courses will include lectures with discussion of case studies in regards to informal/practical lessons.
Teaching Resources
The slides which are going to be presented during lessons will be the main material.
Assessment methods and Criteria
Admission to the exam is subject to the attendance of at least 75% of the lessons.
The exam will include a written test (multiple choice quiz) and an oral test.
MED/17 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES - University credits: 5
Informal teaching: 16 hours
Lessons: 48 hours
Professors: Balotta Claudia, Rusconi Stefano