Medical Sciences (Pharmacology, Clinical Pathology, General medicine, Infectious Diseases, Maxillo-facial Surgery, Patho

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
BIO/14 MED/05 MED/08 MED/09 MED/17 MED/18 MED/29
Learning objectives
The course aims to describe the principal systemic diseases of adults and children, congenital deformities and the principles of drug therapy for the treatment of the observed conditions.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the students will be able to describe the characteristics of the main pathologies in adults and children, correlating the principles of pharmacological therapy with the conditions observed. Students will be able to provide first aid inside and outside the healthcare facility where they work.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Prerequisites for admission
Knowledge of human anatomy, physiology, microbiology and general pathology are required.
Assessment methods and Criteria
The assessment exam consists of a written test of multiple choice and open answer questions possibly supplemented with an oral examination.
Course syllabus
Drug therapy, risks and benefits
Pharmaceutical preparations and formulations and their influence on the drug's action
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
The development of a drug: pre-clinical and clinical trials
Role of healthcare professionals in clinical trials
Dose / response relationship
Plasma concentration / pharmacological effect relationship
Therapeutic interval and toxicity
Minimum effective concentration (CME) and maximum tolerated concentration (CMT)
Latency, intensity and duration of the pharmacological effect
Routes of administration of drugs and selection criteria
Influence of the route of administration on latency, intensity and duration of the effect
Maintenance of stable plasma levels: intravenous infusion, repeated administration, therapeutic regimen, loading and maintenance dose
Mechanisms of transfer of drugs through cell membranes: passive diffusion and facilitated diffusion, active transport and passive transport, phagocytosis and pinocytosis Factors that influence absorption
Real and apparent volume of distribution Factors affecting distribution and redistribution
Meaning and consequences of biotransformation reactions
Phase I and II reactions
Factors that influence biotransformation processes: exogenous and endogenous causes
Enzyme induction and inhibition
Main elimination routes: biliary and renal
Bioavailability, plasma half-life, volume of distribution and clearance of drugs
Classification and causes of adverse reactions
Factors that determine interindividual variability: genetic makeup, sex, age, physiological and pathological conditions
Drug interactions and their consequences
Intolerance, idiosyncrasy and hypersensitivity
The "targets" of drugs: main classes and their characteristics
Agonist and antagonist drugs
Efficacy, potency and clinical significance
Mechanism of action
Pharmacological action: antipyretic effect, analgesic effect, anti-inflammatory effect
Therapeutic use. Undesirable effects
Synthesis and regulation of glucocorticoid release
Pharmacological effects and mechanism of action
Side effects and contraindications
Clinical use
General inhalation and intravenous anesthetics: pharmacological effects and undesirable effects
Mechanism of action, pharmacological effect and undesirable effects
Antibiotic- therapy
Bacteria and their biochemical reactions as potential pharmacological targets
Mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance
Bisphosphonates, vitamin D3, calcitonin and new agents: mechanism of action, pharmacological effect and undesirable effects.
Teaching methods
The Pharmacology module is organized in lectures addressing basic Pharmacology and the most frequent pharmacological Therapies focu-sing on the oral cavity and its hygiene.
Teaching Resources
The slides used by the teacher during the lessons are available to students through the Ariel site.
Rossi Cuomo Riccardi
Farmacologia per le Professioni sanitarie
Govoni S
Casa Editrice Ambrosiana
Di Giulio et al.
Farmacologia generale e speciale. Per le lauree sanitarie
Patologia clinica
Course syllabus
- blood count: assessment of white blood cells and red blood cells and their diagnostic value
- diagnostic evaluation of tumor markers
- diagnostic evaluation of autoimmune diseases
Teaching methods
The course aims to provide the student with the basic knowledge related to the peculiar aspects of the main human pathologies, with particular reference to those that refer to the dental and dental hygiene field, through frontal lectures and clinical examples, with particular reference to the area of the oral cavity
Teaching Resources
"MEDICINA DI LABORATORIO La diagnosi della malattia nel laboratorio clinico" La posata. Ed Piccin
Anatomia patologica
Course syllabus
I. Methodological bases used in anatomo-pathological diagnostics:
· Definition of pathological anatomy;
· Main activities of the pathologist: autopsy, macroscopic examination, histopathological examination, cytopathological examination, histochemical examination, immunohistochemical examination, molecular pathology examination;
· Compilation of the request for histopathological and cytopathological examination;
· Protection of patient privacy;
· Method of collection of the material to be submitted to the anatomical-pathological examination;
· Handling of the material for the histopathological diagnosis: fixation and processing of the samples; preparation and staining of histological slides;
· Immunohistochemistry techniques in pathological anatomy;
· Molecular biology techniques in pathological anatomy;
· Diagnostic cytopathology: methods of collection and processing of cytological material; cytopathology principles;
· Light microscope and observation of histopathological slides;
· Transmission and scanning electron microscope.
II. Principles of pathological diagnostics:
· Interpretation of the anatomical-pathological findings;
· Disorders of cell proliferation and differentiation (in particular, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, neoplasia);
· Classification of neoplasms (histotype, TNM grade and stage);
· Pathological anatomy of the oral cavity (in particular, pre-cancerous, benign neoplasms, malignant neoplasms, odontogenic tumors);
· Pathological anatomy of the salivary glands;
· Pathological anatomy of the tonsils;
· Elements of pathological anatomy of the cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory, digestive, genitourinary and integumentary systems.
Teaching methods
The course is mainly organized in lectures integrated with some pathological anatomy exercises with examples of tests for learning assessment.
Teaching Resources
As support material for teaching, the slides used by the teacher during the lessons.
Medicina interna
Course syllabus
Atherosclerosis, metabolic disease, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, ischemic heart disease, heart failure.
Respiratory diseases and tuberculosis.
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
Materiale didattico fornito a lezione.
Rugarli. Medicina Interna sistematica. Ed Masson.
Didactic material given during the course.
Malattie infettive
Course syllabus
- Introduction to Infection Diseases
- Microorganisms and main agents of infectious diseases
- Symbiosis and Parasitic Guest Relationships
- The microbial flora
- Infectious diseases
- Virulence factors
- Method of transmission of infectious diseases
- Ways of appearance of an infectious disease in the population
- The guest's defenses
- The concept of Immunity
- The innate defenses (Natural Immunity)
- The acquired defenses (Adaptive Immunity)
- Lymphocytes and lymphatic organs
- The stages of adaptive response
- Clonal selection
- Antibodies
- The presentation of the antigen
- The MHC system
- The humoral answer
- The cell-mediated response
- The immunopathogenesis of infectious diseases
- Elements of diagnostics of infectious diseases
- Diagnosis of infectious diseases
- Introduction to serological techniques
- Meaning of the search for antibodies or antigens
- Serological techniques most frequently used in the diagnostic laboratory (agglutination, ELISA, immunofluorescence, Western blot)
- Molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of infectious diseases
- The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique for the detection of microbial nucleic acids
- Hepatitic virus infections
- Hepatitis C and B
- Definition of infectious hepatitis and main viral agents
- HCV and HBV viruses
- Natural history of C and B virus infections
- Method of transmission
- Diffusion in Italy and in the world
- Professional exhibition
- Prevention
- Retrovirus infections
- HIV and AIDS infection
- The virus
- Pathogenesis of AIDS
- Method of transmission
- Diffusion in the world and in Italy
- Professional risk and prevention of exposure
- Sexually Transmitted Infections (MTS)
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
Materiale didattico fornito a lezione.
Chirurgia maxillo-facciale
Course syllabus
1 Cranio facial malformations
· Lip and palate clefts
· Facial clefts
· Craniostenosis and craniofaciostenosis (general principles, plagiocephaly, trigonocephaly, scaphocephaly, brachycephaly, S. of Appert, S. of Crouzon etc.)
· Latero-facial microsomies

2 Cranio-maxillofacial traumatology: general principles, pathogenesis, diagnostic aspects and treatment notes
· Management of the traumatized patient and emergencies in facial traumatology
· Soft tissue traumatology (wound healing, lesions of the glandular ducts etc.)
· Traumatology of the facial skeleton (mandibular fractures, maxillary fractures, nose fractures, zygomatic fractures, orbital fractures, craniofacial fractures, complex fractures)

3 Growth anomalies of the maxilla and the mandible
· Etiopathogenesis of maxillary and mandibuar deformities
· Physical examination in orthognathic surgery (facial examination, occlusal examination, teleradiographic and cephalometric examination)
· Treatment planning and role of pre and post surgical orthodontic therapy
· Classification and treatment of maxilary and mandibular deformities
· Dento-facial asymmetries

4 Surgical pathology of the temporomandibular joint. Diagnostic aspects and elements of therapy
5 Temporomandibular disorders.
· Arthrosis and arthritis
· Ankylosis
- condylar fractures
- malformations
· Tumors

6 Oro-maxillofacial cystic lesions: diagnostic and treatment aspects
· Definition and classification of cystic lesions
· Bone cysts (odontogenic, non-odontogenic and pseudocyst)
· Soft tissue cysts (of the thyroglossal duct, dermoids, brachials etc.)

7 Benign oro-maxillofacial tumors:
· diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities
· Classification of benign tumors
· Odontogenic and non-odontogenic benign bone tumors (clinical, radiographic and microscopic pictures)
· Benign soft tissue tumors (clinical and instrumental pictures)

8 Malignant oro-maxillofacial tumors
· Carcinoma of the oral cavity (epidemiology, risk factors, biology, clinical features , staging, treatment and prognosis)
· Nose-ethmoid-maxillary tumors and main sarcomas of the extreme cephalic
· Skin tumors (classification, risk factors, biology, clinical features, staging, treatment)

9 Maxillofacial reconstructive surgery
· General principles (surgical problems, classification and biology of grafts, flaps and microvascular flaps)
· Reconstructive modalities of the facial skeleton (jaw, upper jaw, etc)
· Reconstructive modalities of soft tissues (skin, lips, oral floor etc.)
CAD CAM customized reconstruction of the facial skeleton

10 Inflammatory pathologies of oro-maxillofacial hard and soft tissues
· microbiology, clinical features and treatment principles
· Abscesses and odontogenic phlegmons
· Osteitis and osteomyelitis
· sinusitis
· Necrotizing fasciitis

11 Surgery of the trigeminal and facial nerves
· Classification of nerve injuries
· Injury of the trigeminal nerve and of the facial nerve: diagnostic features and therapy modalities
Teaching methods
· Frontal lessons supported by visual and audiovisual media of many clincal cases
· Discussion of clinical cases
· At the specific request of the student professional clinical activity in the unit will be provided.
Teaching Resources
R. Brusati, M. Chiapasco
Elementi di Chirurgia Oro-Maxillo-Facciale
Edizione Masson, Milano 1999

AAVV Trattato di patologia chirurgica maxillo-facciale della Società Italiana di Chirurgia Maxillo-Facciale, minerva medica
Chirurgia generale
Course syllabus
The stress:
· definition,
· clinical and instrumental parameters
· Practical measures
The water balance:
· Dehydration
· Hyperhydration
· The reinstatement
· Main causes
· Clinical remedies
· Feeding methods
Thyroid pathology:
· Hypothyroidism
· Hyperthyroidism
· Hyperparathyroidism
· Hypoparathyroidism
Breast pathologies:
· Benign breast tumors
· Malignant breast neoplasms
· Surgical techniques
· Reconstructive plastic surgery
Teaching methods
Teaching Resources
Materiale didattico fornito a lezione.
Anatomia patologica
MED/08 - PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Chirurgia generale
MED/18 - GENERAL SURGERY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Chirurgia maxillo-facciale
MED/29 - MAXILLOFACIAL SURGERY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Gianni' Aldo Bruno
BIO/14 - PHARMACOLOGY - University credits: 2
Lessons: 20 hours
Professor: Brini Anna Teresa
Malattie infettive
MED/17 - INFECTIOUS DISEASES - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Bandera Alessandra
Medicina interna
MED/09 - INTERNAL MEDICINE - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
Professor: Tripputi Pasquale
Patologia clinica
MED/05 - CLINICAL PATHOLOGY - University credits: 1
Lessons: 10 hours
By e-mail to set an appointment
Via Vanvitelli,32 20129 Milano o I.R.C.C.S. GALEAZZI