Radiological protection of umans and the environment

A.Y. 2019/2020
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course provides the scientific elements and basic principles for the assessment of the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation and for the prevention and protection of the population, the patient, the worker and the environment, in relation to the planned, the existing and the emergency exposure situations, and in view of the justification and optimization of the exposure.
Expected learning outcomes
At the end of the course the student will have acquired a series of skills in the field of protection against ionizing radiation, and in particular the students:

1. will have acquired an adequate awareness of the risks and benefits of exposure to ionizing radiation in the various areas (exposure of the worker, the patient, the public, ..);
2. will be able to realize not only the level of risks attributable to ionizing radiation but also the bases used for the estimates of specific detriments;

3. will be able to analyze and interpret the principles of the radiological protection system in the different context of exposure;
4. will have acquired knowledge concerning the protection of the patient and staff in radiology and nuclear medicine, with attention also to the most recent re-evaluation of the dose to the lens;

5. will be well informed about radiation protection for embryo, fetus and children in the field of diagnostic imaging;
6. will have acquired knowledge on environmental radiation protection, taking into consideration the protection of the population from sources of natural origin and the protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation;

7. will have the opportunity to be informed on issues of radiological protection of the environment, including ethical and social aspects, together with the definition of derived levels of consideration;
8. will have the opportunity to enter into the legislative aspects of radiological protection, starting from the International and European framework, realizing the context of historical evolution and the framework of recommendations, as well as the related technical aspects.
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
Course syllabus
· The radiological protection system: - dosimetric, radiation protection and operating quantities; - principles of radiation protection; - constraints and reference levels; - risks attributable to ionizing radiation; -specific detriments; - bases for calculating risk coefficients.
· Radiation protection in medicine: - bases of protection of the patient, of the medical staff in radiology, and in nuclear medicine; - risk assessment in diagnostic imaging; - radiation protection for embryo, fetus and children; -incidents that may involve use of radiation in medicine.
· Radiation protection from exposure to natural sources: exposure to cosmic rays for the aviation staff, exposure of passengers; - radiation protection from NORM and TENORM; -radioprotection in order to reduce collective and individual dose.
· Radiation protection in decommissioning and storage of radioactive waste: - attention to workers' protection; - issues regarding the choices and procedures relating to the storage of radioactive material for the purposes of radiation protection also for future generations
· Environmental radiation protection objectives: -protection of the population from sources of radiation of anthropogenic and natural origin; -protection of fauna and flora from exposure to ionizing radiation; - aspects of dosimetry; - derived consideration levels.
· Analysis of the evolution of the recommendations of the International Commission Radiological Protection, ICRP; - references to ICRP 26, ICRP 60 Recommendations; - analysis of the transfer of recommendations at the level of European Directives on protection from ionizing radiation; - ICRP 103 recommendations and latest developments.
Prerequisites for admission
Preliminary knowledge of ionizing radiation is required with attention to the interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, and a basic culture of chemistry and biology.
Teaching methods
Frontal lessons
Teaching Resources
· European Commission Radiation Protection n. 180, 2014
· National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, NCRP report 160, 2009.
· IAEA, Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards. Interim
Edition, 2011.
· Ethical considerations in protecting the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation, IAEA-TECDOC
1270, 2002.
· ICRP publications regardong the course topics, are available online through the Library
Assessment methods and Criteria
The evaluation criteria are based on an oral test with evaluation expressed in thirtieths. During the course of the teaching activity, students are given timely information on the structure of the exam.
The test implies that the student is prepared on one of the publications of the International Radiation Protection Commission, which are indicated during the teaching activity, taking into consideration one of the main topics covered: radiation protection in medicine, NORM, radioactive waste, protection of the environment. During the exam, the student will make a presentation on the treated document and an interview will be organized which will highlight both the knowledge acquired during the course and the specificities that emerged from the new text addressed.
FIS/07 - APPLIED PHYSICS - University credits: 6
Lessons: 42 hours