Agricultural hydraulics

A.Y. 2020/2021
Overall hours
Learning objectives
The course gives the basic knowledge of hydraulics as well as soil hydrology which is necessary to study and analyse problems dealing with water resources planning and management in agricultural systems
Expected learning outcomes
The student learns the main concepts of hydrostatics, hydrodynamics in uniform flow conditions, for applications in design and verification of simple hydraulic infrastructure, products and systems.
Moreover the student gains a methodology to study problems dealing with the use of water for irrigation as well as the protection of water resources
Course syllabus and organization

Single session

Lesson period
Second semester
The course will be provided through:
- synchronous remote lectures via Teams platform
- asynchronous exercises guided by means of video-turorials
- field acivity in presence

course pre-requisites do not change

Written exam in presence and oral exam by remote usingTeams

the course program and references do not change
Course syllabus
0. introduction to the course (0,5 CFU)
1. Water properties and Hydrostatics (0.5 CFU)
(1a) Physical characteristics of the water. 1b) Fundamental quantities of hydraulics and their units of measurement. 1c) Pressure in a still liquid and its diagrams. 1d) General equation of hydrostatics, 1e) Pressure measuring instruments. 1f) Calculation of thrusts on the walls of a tank.
2. General principles of hydrodynamics (1 CFU)
2a) Elements characteristic of the motion of liquids (trajectories, flow pipe, etc.). 2b) Definition and classification of water currents. 2c) Movement Regimes. 2d) Discharge. Equation of continuity. 2e) Bernoulli Theorem. 2f) Extension of Bernoulli Theorem to currents.
3. Real liquids and currents under pressure (1 CFU)
3a) Extension of Bernoulli's theorem to real liquids. 3b) Continuous and localized pressure dissipations. 3c) Characteristic lines. 3d) Motion resistance laws. 3e) Pipeline verification and design problems. 3f) Pipelines with pumps and turbines.
4. Free surface currents (1 CFU)
4a) Uniform motion in canals and watercourses. 4b) Flow rate scale. 4c) Dimensioning and verification criteria. 4d) Calculation of shear stress. 4e) Principles of foronomy. 4f) Critical state of the current. 4g) Notes on permanent motion profiles.
5. the irrigtin systems (1 CFU)
5a) Introduction to irrigation systems. 5b) organisation of the irrigation systems. 5c) diversion plants fro rivers. 5d) notes on rues and laws for irrigation and reclamation. 5e) hydraulic structures for irrigation.
6. soil hydrology (1 CFU)
6a) water requirement for crops. 6b) soil-plant-atmosphere system. 6c) Management of irrigation. 6d) irrigation methods (gravity, raindrop, drip)
Prerequisites for admission
Fundamental prerequisites for frequency and/or study are knowledge of the main laws of physics, systems of units of measurement, trigonometry, elementary algebra.
Teaching methods
lectures, and classroom exercises
Teaching Resources
The main reference for exam preparation is represented by the course website available on the University's online teaching platform Ariel. In it, the course is divided into its components and is available for each one:
- a brief description of the topics,
- copy of slides used in class
- further bibliographical material (articles, notes, etc.).

There are also available on the course website:
- useful material for the exercises
- examples for the hydraulics part
Further bibliographical references are:
- M. Gallati e S. Sibilla (2009) Fondamenti di idraulica, Carocci editore Roma
Assessment methods and Criteria
The exam consists of:
- a written test on the part related to hydraulics, in which the student must answer design questions related to the design or verification of hydraulic systems, watercourses, tanks, etc., simplified but representative of real situations.
The test normally lasts 2 hours and also includes the resolution of two simple exercises for the verification of preliminary knowledge (1st and 2nd degree equations, decomposition of vectors, conversion of units of measurement, etc.).
For the preparation for the written test, it is particularly useful to refer to the examination texts available on the course website in the Ariel platform.
- an oral test with the program part relating to irrigation systems.
To access to the oral test it is necessary to have obtained a score of at least 16/30 in the written test (in this case the knowledge of the minimum requirements regarding hydraulics will be checked first).

The evaluation of the written test is based firstly on the correctness of the adopted design solutions, and secondly on the correctness of the calculations. Each test will have an articulated development to which weight is assigned according to its complexity and difficulty. The grade will be given by the weighted sum of each part.
The evaluation of the oral test is based on the correctness of the answers and on the clarity and completeness of the presentation.

Registration for the written test must be made through the appropriate University Service; this registration is also valid for the oral test (if this takes place on a date different from the written test, please inform the teacher).
If you do not wish to take the written test once you have registered, please cancel your registration by the deadline indicated in the session (or in any case notify the teacher by email).
For working students or students with special and documented needs, it is possible to agree on different examination methods from those indicated.

For students with Specific Learning Disorders, please refer to the Student Guide and the University DSA Service (
Practicals: 16 hours
Lessons: 40 hours
Educational website(s)